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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day
PostPosted: Fri Dec 17, 2010 10:29 pm 
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December 18, 1860 Tuesday
Reconvening in Charleston, the South Carolina Convention met in Institute Hall, with committee work taking most of the day. At Raleigh, N.C., commissioners from Alabama and Mississippi arrived to discuss the situation and the state senate passed a bill to arm the state.

In Washington the Senate passed a resolution that a special committee of thirteen members “inquire into the present condition of the country, and report by bill or otherwise.” Sen. John J. Crittenden of Kentucky, basically a strong unionist who had two sons become Generals during the ensuing war, one for the North and one for the South, presented his “Crittenden Compromise” which was basically the last attempt to resolve the problems by political means. Referred to the new Committee of Thirteen, the Compromise proposed several amendments to the Constitution: 1. Slavery should be prohibited in all territories north of the old Missouri Compromise line, and slavery should not be interfered with by Congress south of that line. When admitted as a state, a territory should be admitted with or without slavery as the state constitution provided. 2. Congress could not abolish slavery in places under its exclusive jurisdiction. 3. Congress could not abolish slavery within the District of Columbia so long as it existed in nearby states or without the consent of the inhabitants or without just compensation. 4. Congress had no power to prohibit or hinder transportation of slaves from one state to another. 5. Congress should have power to provide that the United States pay to the owner full value of fugitive slaves when officers were prevented from arresting the fugitives. 6. No future amendment should affect the five preceding articles, nor the sections of the Constitution permitting slavery, and no amendment should be made which would give Congress power to abolish or interfere with slavery in states where state laws permitted it. Crittenden felt revival of the Missouri Compromise line, probably the main feature of the plan, would prevent any expansion at all, while, on the other hand, the Republicans could not accept any slavery expansion in the territories and the South could not accept limitation.

Today, a Sergeant and 20 troopers from the Second Cavalry, captain Sul Ross and a contingent of Texas Rangers and several Tonkawa scouts, and volunteers under Captain Jack Cureton are on an expedition against the Comanches. On the Pease River, near Crowell, Texas, they discover a Comanche village. The soldiers attack and easily defeat the Indians. During the fighting, Cynthia Ann Parker, captured on May 19, 1836, is "rescued" by the soldiers. Despite her pleas to be allowed to stay with the Comanches, Parker is forced to return to "civilization" with the troops.

PARKER, CYNTHIA ANN (ca. 1825-ca. 1871). Cynthia Ann Parker, a captive of the Comanches, was born to Lucy (Duty) and Silas M. Parker in Crawford County, Illinois. According to the 1870 census of Anderson County she would have been born between June 2, 1824, and May 31, 1825. When she was nine or ten her family moved to Central Texas and built Fort Parker on the headwaters of the Navasota River in what is now Limestone County. On May 19, 1836, a large force of Comanche warriors accompanied by Kiowa and Kichai allies attacked the fort and killed several of its inhabitants. During the raid the Comanches seized five captives, including Cynthia Ann. The other four were eventually released, but Cynthia remained with the Indians for almost twenty-five years, forgot white ways, and became thoroughly Comanche. It is said that in the mid-1840s her brother, John Parker, who had been captured with her, asked her to return to their white family, but she refused, explaining that she loved her husband and children too much to leave them. She is also said to have rejected Indian trader Victor Rose's invitation to accompany him back to white settlements a few years later, though the story of the invitation may be apocryphal.

A newspaper account of April 29, 1846, describes an encounter of Col. Leonard G. Williams's trading party with Cynthia, who was camped with Comanches on the Canadian River. Despite Williams's ransom offers, tribal elders refused to release her. Later, federal officials P. M. Butler and M.G. Lewis encountered Cynthia Ann with the Yamparika Comanches on the Washita River; by then she was a full-fledged member of the tribe and married to a Comanche warrior. She never voluntarily returned to white society. Indian agent Robert S. Neighbors learned, probably in 1848, that she was among the Tenawa Comanches. He was told by other Comanches that only force would induce her captors to release her. She had married Peta Nocona and eventually had two sons, Quanah Parker and Pecos, and a daughter, Topsannah.

On December 18, 1860, Texas Rangers under Lawrence Sullivan Ross attacked a Comanche hunting camp at Mule Creek, a tributary of the Pease River. During this raid the rangers captured three of the supposed Indians. They were surprised to find that one of them had blue eyes; it was a non-English-speaking white woman with her infant daughter. Col. Isaac Parker later identified her as his niece, Cynthia Ann. Cynthia accompanied her uncle to Birdville on the condition that military interpreter Horace P. Jones would send along her sons if they were found. While traveling through Fort Worth she was photographed with her daughter at her breast and her hair cut short, a Comanche sign of mourning. She thought that Peta Nocona was dead and feared that she would never see her sons again. On April 8, 1861, a sympathetic Texas legislature voted her a grant of $100 annually for five years and a league of land and appointed Isaac D. and Benjamin F. Parker her guardians. But she was never reconciled to living in white society and made several unsuccessful attempts to flee to her Comanche family. After three months at Birdville, her brother Silas took her to his Van Zandt County home. She afterward moved to her sister's place near the boundary of Anderson and Henderson counties. Though she is said in some sources to have died in 1864, the 1870 census enrolled her and gave her age as forty-five. At her death she was buried in Fosterville Cemetery in Anderson County. In 1910 her son Quanah moved her body to the Post Oak Cemetery near Cache, Oklahoma. She was later moved to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, and reinterred beside Quanah. In the last years of Cynthia Ann's life she never saw her Indian family, the only family she really knew. But she was a true pioneer of the American West, whose legacy was carried on by her son Quanah. Serving as a link between whites and Comanches, Quanah Parker became the most influential Comanche leader of the reservation era.

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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day
PostPosted: Sat Dec 18, 2010 10:17 am 
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keep it going Ned. This is good stuff.

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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day
PostPosted: Sun Dec 19, 2010 12:20 am 
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December 19, 1860 Wednesday
At Charleston various motions and resolutions and speeches were made at the South Carolina Convention. Leaders of the state were also declaring that no more Federal soldiers should be sent to the harbor forts.

A representative from Mississippi was making speeches in Baltimore outlining the intentions of the states which proposed to secede.

A Mississippian called upon President-elect Lincoln in Springfield, Ill. and made some sullen remarks when the conversation turned to secession. Lincoln defined the stand of his party and presented the disunionist an autographed copy of the Lincoln-Douglas debates. The visitor was visibly chastened.

Meanwhile in the state of Georgia:

1860 Session of the Georgia General Assembly
Resolution 14
Adopted Dec. 19, 1860

WHEREAS, A large portion of the people of the non-slaveholding States, have for many years past, shown in many ways, a fanatical spirit bitterly hostile to the Southern States, and have, through the instrumentality of incendiary publications, the pulpit, and the newspaper press, finally organized a political party for the avowed purpose of destroying the institution of slavery, and consequently spreading ruin and desolation among the people in every portion of the country where it exists, And,
Whereas, This spirit of fanaticism has allied itself with a design, long entertained by leading politicians of the North, to wield the taxing power of the Government for the purpose of protecting and fostering the interests of that section of the Union, and also to appropriate the common Territories of the United States to the exclusive use of Northern emigration, for the purpose of extending, consolidating, and rendering that power irreversible. And,
Whereas, These designs and movements have attained such ascendency [sic], as to combine a large majority of the Northern people in this sectional party, which has elected to the Presidency and Vice-Presidency of the United States, candidates who are pledge in the most solemn form, and by the plainest, repeated declarations, to wield all the influence and power of the Federal Government to accomplish the objects and purposes of the party by which they have been elected. And,
Whereas, Many of the slaveholding States are about to assemble in Conventions for the purpose of adopting measures for the protection of their rights and the security of their institutions. And,
Whereas, The State of Mississippi has, in a noble spirit of fraternity, sent a Commissioner to communicate to this General Assembly her desire in this emergency in our federal relations. Therefore be it
Resolved, 1st. That the General Assembly of Georgia has listened with sentiments of profound sympathy and respect to the message of Mississippi, on the subject of the present threatening relations of the Northern and Southern sections of the United States, communicated by her distinguished commissioner, the Hon. William L. Harris.
Resolved 2d. That, believing as we do that the present crisis in our national affairs demands resistance, this General Assembly, at its present session, has with great unanimity passed an Act providing for the call of a convention of the people of Georgia, to assemble on the 16th day of January, 1861, for the purpose of determining on the mode, measure and time of that resistance.
Resolved 3d. That we cordially respond to the patriotic hopes of Mississippi, so earnestly expressed by her Legislature, and so ably communicated by her commissioner; and we do hereby give to our sister State the confident assurance that, in our judgment, Georgia will promptly co-operate with her in the adoption of efficient measures for the common defense, safety and honor of the South.
Resolved 4th. That, should any or all of the Southern States determine in the present emergency to withdraw from the Union and resume their sovereignty, it is the sense of this General Assembly that such seceding States should form a confederacy under a republican form of government; and to that end they should adopt the Constitution of the United States, so altered and amended as to suit the new state of affairs.
Resolved 5th. That we do hereby express our cordial appreciation of the dignified and gentlemanly bearing of the Hon. William L. Harris towards this General Assembly, as well as the satisfactory manner in which he has discharged the responsible duties of his high commission.
Resolved 6th. That his Excellency the Governor be, and he is, hereby requested to cause all the proceedings in the reception of the Commissioner from the State of Mississippi to be enrolled on parchment, signed by the officers of both Houses of the General Assembly, and by the Governor, with the seal of State attached thereto; and that the same be presented by him to the Hon. William L. Harris, as the response of Georgia to the friendly greeting of Mississippi.
Committee on the part of the Senate, T. Butler King, Hines Holt, Hugh M. Moore, L.H. Briscoe, A.R. Lawton, Dan'l S. Printup.
Committee on the part of the House of Representatives, Julian Hartridge, Geo. N. Lester, Clifford Anderson, M.w. Lewis, Isham S. Fannin, Geo. T. Barnes, John L. Harris.
Assented to December 19th, 1860.

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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day
PostPosted: Sun Dec 19, 2010 9:43 am 
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I wonder if this is the first mention of a "Confederacy"?

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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day
PostPosted: Sun Dec 19, 2010 9:55 pm 
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December 20, 1860 Thursday
THE UNION IS DISSOLVED.

In 1832, South Carolina threatened secession over the tariff issue. Without support from the rest of the South and in the face of strong declarations from President Andrew Jackson, South Carolina had backed down. Not so this day, when Abraham Lincoln's election had galvanized the Deep South.

Bells rang in Charleston, South Carolina, cannons fired, people poured out into the streets, waved flags and shouted. They were celebrating the passage of a law by a special state convention. The law proclaimed that South Carolina would become the first state to secede. This was the start of a chain of events leading up to the beginning of The Civil War, four months later.

By a vote of 169 to nothing the convention had severed the ties of Union and the act so long spoken of was done. “We, the people of the State of South Carolina, in convention assembled, do declare and ordain, and it is hereby declared and ordained, That the ordinance adopted by us in convention on the twenty-third day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-eight, whereby the Constitution of the United States of America was ratified, and also all acts and parts of acts of the General Assembly of this State ratifying amendments of the said Constitution, are hereby repealed; and that the union now subsisting between South Carolina and other States, under the name of the "United States of America," is hereby dissolved.”

President Buchanan was attending a wedding reception in Washington when South Carolina Congressman Laurence Keitt came in, crying, “Thank God! Oh, thank God!” Told the news quietly, the President looked stunned, fell back, and grasped the arms of his chair. Buchanan left at once.

Earlier in the day President Buchanan had named prominent Washington attorney and Democratic leader Edwin M. Stanton, originally from Ohio, Attorney General to succeed J. S. Black, who had become Secretary of State. It was the first major role for Stanton, a man whose name was to become both famous and infamous in the years to come.

In the Senate Vice-President Breckinridge named the Committee of Thirteen to look in to the condition of the country. It included Senators Jefferson Davis of Mississippi and Robert Toombs of Georgia, Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, William H. Seward of New York, and Ben Wade of Ohio. Thus many shades of opinion from secessionist to Radical were included.

At Springfield President-elect Lincoln received the news of secession calmly by joining Mrs. Lincoln for a latte at the local Starbucks.

Secretary of War John Floyd ordered 113 columbiad cannon and 11 32-pounders from the Pittsburgh Arsenal to Ship Island, Mississippi and Galveston, Texas.

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Blood 'n Guts hisself, a land lovin' pirate. Show me some arty tubes and we'll charge 'em.
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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day
PostPosted: Mon Dec 20, 2010 8:58 pm 
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December 21, 1860 Friday
In Washington the four South Carolina congressmen formally withdrew from the House of Representatives, their letter being presented on Monday, Dec. 24.

In Springfield Mr. Lincoln wrote Democratic leader Francis P. Blair, Sr., that “According to my present view if the forts (at Charleston) shall be given up before the inauguration, the General (Scott) must retake them afterwards.” He wrote similarly to Congressman Elihu B. Washburne.

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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day
PostPosted: Tue Dec 21, 2010 8:37 pm 
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December 22, 1860 Saturday
Lincoln's opposition to a section of the Crittenden Compromise becomes public, ending the proposal's potential as a possible solution to the crisis.

Secessionist and Union meetings continued in the wake of the rupture of the nation. The South Carolina Convention named three commissioners to deal with the United States in regard to Federal property. The convention also passed a resolution that Forts Moultrie and Sumter, Castle Pinckney, and the Charleston Arsenal should now “be subject to the authority and control” of the state, and “that the possession of said forts and arsenal should be restored to the State of South Carolina.”

Abraham Lincoln replies to a letter from Georgia Congressman Alexander H. Stephens that he wished to assure him that the Republican administration would not interfere with slavery in the South either directly or indirectly: “The South would be in no more danger in this respect, than it was in the days of Washington. I suppose, however, this does not meet the case. You think slavery is right and ought to be extended; while we think it is wrong and ought to be restricted. That I suppose is the rub.”

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Blood 'n Guts hisself, a land lovin' pirate. Show me some arty tubes and we'll charge 'em.
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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day
PostPosted: Tue Dec 21, 2010 9:04 pm 
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I did not realise that Lincoln was a latte drinker, I would have though he would have been more of a double shot expresso man :mrgreen:

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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day
PostPosted: Tue Dec 21, 2010 9:29 pm 
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... and at Starbucks, too. Just seeing if anyone was actually reading this.

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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day
PostPosted: Tue Dec 21, 2010 11:10 pm 
I found the Starbucks touch quite a nice one....Very politically correct, covers up the Swinger's Party they actually attended........


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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day
PostPosted: Thu Dec 23, 2010 12:48 am 
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December 23, 1860 Sunday
President Buchanan, tipped to upcoming problems for Secretary of War John Floyd, requests his resignation.

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Blood 'n Guts hisself, a land lovin' pirate. Show me some arty tubes and we'll charge 'em.
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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day
PostPosted: Thu Dec 23, 2010 8:46 pm 
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December 24, 1860 Monday
It is Christmas Eve and trouble is brewing strong across the United States (and the sovereign state of South Carolina). Santa Claus is not quite as jovial as normal while he makes his rounds in a sleigh pulled by 8 flying reindeer, because he knows what is in store for the homes and children that he visits this night.

The South Carolina Convention at Charleston passed a Declaration of Immediate Causes of secession, stating that the Union was declared in the Constitution to be an equal Union of the states and that each state had separate control over its institutions, including the right of slavery. “We affirm that these ends for which this Government was instituted have been defeated, and the Government itself has been made destructive of them by the action of the non-slaveholding States.” They claimed the non-slaveholding states had “assumed the right of deciding upon the propriety of our domestic institutions; …” In an address to the people of the slaveholding states, the convention reported its reasons for dissolving South Carolina’s connection with the Union and contended that the Northern states had overthrown the Constitution and “It is no longer a free Government, but a despotism.” They would have preferred to remain in the old Union but “we, of the South, are at last driven together by the stern destiny which controls the existence of nations.” The address called for a Confederacy of slaveholding states in order to maintain independence and to work out their own destinies.

Governor Pickens of South Carolina issued a proclamation declaring the state separate, independent, free, and sovereign. Alabama citizens elected delegates to a state convention and the governor ordered the legislature convened Jan. 14.

In the House of Representatives the letter of resignation of the South Carolina representatives was laid on the table with the names retained on the roll. Thus the secession of the state was not recognized. In the Senate William H. Seward of New York proposed an amendment to the Constitution that Congress should never interfere with slaves in the states; that jury trial be given fugitive slaves and that state constitutions having personal liberty laws in opposition to the Federal Constitution be revised. The United States Senate's Committee of Thirteen rejects the Crittenden Compromise.

Two notables arrive in Springfield, Ill. Lincoln's old friend E. D. Baker and David Wilmot of Pennsylvania. Lincoln calls on Wilmot at his hotel and spends most of the day.

Lincoln writes to Trumbull. Lincoln has heard that South Carolina forts are to be surrendered. If true, he intends to announce publicly that they are to be retaken, to give Union men "a rallying cry." He thanks Isaac N. Morris, Quincy, for introducing Union resolution in Congress, and asks Hamlin to find New Englander of Democratic antecedents for cabinet. "Or shall I decide for myself?"

Lincoln buys yard goods for his wife, and 11 handkerchiefs for Christmas presents.

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Blood 'n Guts hisself, a land lovin' pirate. Show me some arty tubes and we'll charge 'em.
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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day
PostPosted: Fri Dec 24, 2010 10:29 pm 
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December 25, 1860 Tuesday
Major Robert Anderson, commander of the Federal garrison at Fort Moultrie in Charleston, South Carolina, decides in the evening to withdraw his troops to Fort Sumter in the middle of Charleston Harbor, but rain and heavy fog delays the actual departure until December 26.

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Blood 'n Guts hisself, a land lovin' pirate. Show me some arty tubes and we'll charge 'em.
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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day
PostPosted: Sat Dec 25, 2010 9:21 pm 
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December 26, 1860 Wednesday
By 8 P.M., Major Robert Anderson, concerned about the defensibility of his position at Fort Moultrie, removed his garrison to Fort Sumter on his own initiative. Fort Moultrie on Sullivan's Island was intended to protect Charleston from hostile action from the sea. Its guns pointed towards that direction and the post was vulnerable to attack by land. Sumter, located in the harbor itself, was safer. Anderson's force consisted of approximately ten officers, seventy-six enlisted men, forty-five women and children, and an ever diminishing group of laborers who would eventually number about fifty-five. The women and children would be evacuated from the fort on the morning of February l, 1861. The move was justified by Anderson in that he felt he had tangible evidence that Fort Moultrie would be forcibly taken by South Carolinians: “The step which I have taken was, in my opinion, necessary to prevent the effusion of blood …” He spiked the guns and destroyed the carriages and later said, “I was certain that if attacked my men must have been sacrificed, and the command of the harbor lost.” South Carolina and other Southern areas were outraged; overt action had, in their minds, been taken by the United States in violation of promises of the President that no change in position would be made. Sec. of War Floyd opposed the shift as against orders, but Anderson had interpreted his instructions differently, and under them had merely transferred his force. The move had been made with skill and secrecy, confounding the Secessionists. Anderson immediately began to mount guns and strengthen Fort Sumter. He still faced the question of a small garrison, short supplies, and the danger of attack. In Washington the commissioners from South Carolina arrived to discuss the forts and relations with the United States.

(The following commentary was obtained from the Tulane University web site under Dilemmas of Compromise. While it gets ahead of us, it is a good prep for understanding now through the subsequent months in regards to Fort Sumter.)

Commentary: The "Truce" at Fort Sumter

When Anderson moved to Fort Sumter, he disrupted one of a series of fragile agreements, sometimes called "truces," established between the Buchanan administration and South Carolina. On December 10, before Anderson's move and before South Carolina seceded, a group of South Carolina congressmen called upon the President for a "pledge" that he would not reinforce or in any way change the military situation at Charleston pending anticipated negotiations between the state and the federal government. In return, South Carolina would not attack the forts. Buchanan refused to sign such a statement, but he offered verbal assurances that he did not intend to reinforce the forts under present circumstances. The congressmen understood Buchanan also to say that they would be informed if the President changed his policy.

This "truce" was subject to different interpretations. The South Carolinians considered Buchanan pledged as a gentleman not to change the status of the forts, including a move by Anderson from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter, and to inform them of any change in policy. The President, however, did not think he had made a firm commitment with a group who had no authority to enter into reciprocal agreements. Instead, he considered that they had arrived at something like a mutual understanding of present intentions. Whatever the ambiguity, two things are clear. Buchanan, who had initially considered reinforcing Anderson, had changed his mind. He adopted, at least for the moment, a policy of maintaining the status quo. In addition, Buchanan refused to consider abandoning Sumter or other forts still under government control.

After South Carolina seceded (December 20, 1861) and Anderson moved to Fort Sumter, Buchanan was pressured to order Anderson to return to Fort Moultrie as well as to remove federal forces from all its forts in South Carolina. But encouraged by pro-Union cabinet members, especially fellow Pennsylvanian, Secretary of State Jeremiah S. Black, and irritated by the badgering of pro-secessionist southerners, the President refused to do either. As for the "truce," Buchanan explained that Anderson had acted on his own responsibility, that his move was not aggressive, and that South Carolina's subsequent takeover of the forts abandoned by Anderson made his return impossible. Most significantly, Buchanan announced his determination to maintain Sumter and to defend it against attack. On December 31, the President had sufficiently stiffened his resolve to hold Sumter and he initiated measures to reinforce it. On January 5, 1861, the Star of the West sailed from New York with troops and supplies to relieve the fort.

The failure of this expedition led to another arrangement, or "truce," at Fort Sumter. Following the Star of the West incident, Anderson and Governor Francis W. Pickens of South Carolina agreed that neither side would resort to arms until the issue of Sumter's possession was resolved by new negotiations in Washington. While these negotiations, undertaken by an agent of the governor, dragged on through January, President Buchanan refused to consider another relief expedition. Aid would be sent to Sumter only if Anderson requested additional supplies or reinforcements for his safety or defense. The administration, therefore, placed the responsibility for relief on Anderson, making clear to the commander that it wanted to avoid a conflict. Anderson, who shared Buchanan's hopes, did not request relief.

On February 6, 1861, Buchanan finally brought the negotiations with South Carolina to a conclusion by rejecting South Carolina's demand that he relinquish Sumter. He thereby ended the "truce" established by Anderson and the governor at Charleston. For the remainder of his term, however, the President preserved the status quo. Although he agreed to have another Sumter relief expedition readied in New York, he refused to send it unless Anderson requested aid. With compromise efforts underway in both Congress and at the Peace Convention in Washington, and with the new Confederate government sending commissioners to negotiate with the federal government, Sumter appeared temporarily secure. Anderson was instructed to act on the defensive and avoid conflict.

By the end of Buchanan's presidency, therefore, no specific agreement or "truce" remained in effect in Charleston. Despite his vacillation on other matters, Buchanan held firm to the position that he would not abandon or sell Sumter. Both South Carolina and the Confederate government claimed the fort and insisted it be relinquished. But since both the Buchanan administration and the Confederacy were willing, for different reasons, to avoid an immediate confrontation at Sumter, the appearance of an understanding existed. In the words of Lincoln's biographers, Nicolay and Hay, "while Mr. Buchanan refused a truce in theory, he granted one in fact."

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Blood 'n Guts hisself, a land lovin' pirate. Show me some arty tubes and we'll charge 'em.
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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day
PostPosted: Mon Dec 27, 2010 12:19 am 
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December 27, 1860 Thursday
Maj. Anderson raised his flag on Fort Sumter and South Carolina troops occupied Castle Pinckney and Fort Moultrie at Charleston. The U.S. Revenue Cutter William Aiken surrendered to state forces. Georgia and Alabama offered troops to South Carolina if needed. In a conference with President Buchanan, a group of Southern representatives protested the shift of troops to Fort Sumter. According to one report, the President said it had been against his orders and policy. But he delayed taking any action on the request to return the garrison to Fort Moultrie. The Cabinet met frequently these last few days of December. Sec. of War Floyd strongly advocated removing the entire Federal garrison from Charleston Harbor, on grounds that Anderson had violated pledges of the government. Thompson (Sec. of Interior) sided with Floyd, while Holt (Postmaster General), Black (Sec. of State), and Stanton (Attorney General) opposed Floyd’s plan. Buchanan had been surprised by Maj. Anderson’s transfer and regretted it. He felt it would move other states to join South Carolina before compromise measures could be brought out of the Senate. Buchanan had been hopeful of confining secession to South Carolina.

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Blood 'n Guts hisself, a land lovin' pirate. Show me some arty tubes and we'll charge 'em.
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