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The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865
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Author:  nsimms [ Sat May 30, 2015 5:12 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865

May 31, 1865 Wednesday
A Federal military expedition operated from Barrancas to Apalachicola, Florida until June 6. The following appointments are made to Brigadier General: Henry Alanson Barnum, USA; Robert Francis Catterson, USA; William Thomas Clark, USA; Americus Vespucius Rice, USA; and William Burnham Woods, USA.

Assistant Secretary Fox ordered a reduction in the East Gulf Blockading Squadron to ten steamers and four tug boats. The same order redesignated the Squadron as the East Gulf Squadron. The South Atlantic Blockading Squadron to 15 steamers and 6 tugboats and was redesignated the South Atlantic Squadron. The West Gulf Squadron was reduced to 15 steamers, one monitor and one river ironclad, and 6 tugs.

Author:  nsimms [ Sun May 31, 2015 9:10 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865

June 1, 1865 Thursday
A Federal military expedition operated through Pocahontas and Pendleton counties, West Virginia and Highland County, Virginia. It was a day of humiliation and prayer in honor of Abraham Lincoln.

Author:  nsimms [ Mon Jun 01, 2015 6:38 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865

June 2, 1865 Friday
The terms of surrender of Galveston, Texas, were signed on board U.S.S. Fort Jackson by Major General E. Kirby Smith on behalf of the Confederacy. Brigadier General E. J. Davis represented the Union Army. The agreement had been made May 26 at New Orleans.

Assistant Secretary Fox ordered the Mississippi Squadron reduced to 15 ships "with all possible dispatch." In his letter to Rear Admiral S. P. Lee of the Mississippi Squadron, Fox concluded: "Economize in the use of coal and give directions to all vessels to keep steam down, except in an emergency. . . ." With the war completed, a number of similar steps were taken to cut expenditures to a minimum and reduce drastically what had become during the years of conflict the strongest Navy afloat.

Lambdin P. Milligan and W.A. Bowles, condemned to be executed this day, were reprieved and sentenced to life imprisonment. Proceedings had been instituted in the Federal courts to reverse their conviction by military court-martial on charges of conspiring against the United States, giving aid and comfort to rebels, and inciting insurrection. Milligan, a prominent Indiana leader of the Copperheads, was arrested Oct 5, 1864. On Dec 17, 1866, the U.S. Supreme Court in ex parte Milligan unanimously ruled that Milligan be released. A majority held that neither the President nor Congress had the power to order military commissions to try civilians outside the actual theater of war. A minority held that Congress had such power.

The British government officially withdrew belligerent rights from the Confederacy. President Johnson lifted military restrictions on trade in the United States except on contraband of war.

Author:  nsimms [ Tue Jun 02, 2015 7:54 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865

June 3, 1865 Saturday
Lieutenant William E. Fitzhugh, in U.S.S. Ouachita, led a naval expedition of seven gunboats up the Red River escorting 4,000 troops under Major General Francis J. Herron. These troops were moving into the trans-Mississippi theater to garrison the forts and posts surrendered by Confederate General Kirby Smith and to establish law and order in the region. At Alexandria, Louisiana, Fitzhugh met with Lieutenant Jonathan H. Carter, the senior Confederate naval officer in the trans-Mississippi department and received the surrender of all naval vessels, equipment, and personnel in that region. The most formidable vessel surrendered was the stern wheel ironclad, C.S.S. Missouri, commanded by Carter. The ship had been built in Shreveport and late in March, when the river had risen sufficiently, had steamed down river to Alexandria. There Carter had written enthusiastically to General Simon B. Buckner: "I will . . . be pleased to welcome you on the deck of the Missouri, when we arrive at Grand Ecore . . . I hope to be. a valuable [addition] to your forces defending the valley." Missouri, however, never had this opportunity for battle, although she had the distinction of being the last Confederate ironclad to be surrendered in home waters.

Author:  nsimms [ Thu Jun 04, 2015 9:05 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865

June 5, 1865 Monday
The veteran portion of the Federal 4th Army Corps is ordered to proceed from the Department of the Cumberland to New Orleans, Louisiana.

Captain Benjamin F. Sands, with U.S.S. Cornubia and Preston, crossed the bar at Galveston, landed and raised the United States flag over the custom house. New London and Port Royal were ordered to follow immediately. Terms of the surrender had been agreed upon by Major General E. Kirby Smith, CSA, on 2 June on board U.S.S. Fort Jackson. The surrender of Galveston, combined with the capitulation of Sabine Pass and Brownsville, enabled Rear Admiral Thatcher to write Secretary Welles that "blockade running from Galveston and the coast of Texas is at an end."

Author:  nsimms [ Fri Jun 05, 2015 8:37 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865

June 6, 1865 Tuesday
Citizens of Missouri ratified a new state constitution abolishing slavery. Guerrilla chieftain William Clarke Quantrill died in Louisville, Kentucky of wounds received May 10. Confederate prisoners of war who were willing to take the oath of allegiance were declared released by President Johnson. Officers above the rank of army captain or navy lieutenant were excepted.

Author:  nsimms [ Sun Jun 07, 2015 9:32 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865

June 8, 1865 Thursday
The Sixth Army Corps, which had missed the big review, had its own parade in Washington.

Author:  nsimms [ Mon Jun 08, 2015 8:53 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865

June 9, 1865 Friday
Another serious explosion of ammunition occurred. At Chattanooga, Tennessee an ordnance building blew up when set afire by a locomotive on a siding nearby. Casualties were put at about ten.

Major General Peter J. Osterhaus, USA, assumes command of the Federal Department of Mississippi.

Secretary Welles ordered that the East Gulf and the West Gulf Squadrons be combined and redesignated the Gulf Squadron. He directed Rear Admiral H. K. Thatcher to relieve Rear Admiral C. K. Stribling and assume command of the newly formed Squadron with headquarters at Pensacola.

Welles also directed that the North and South Atlantic squadrons be combined and redesignated the Atlantic Squadron. At the same time he ordered Rear Admiral Dahlgren to return to Washington and Rear Admiral William Radford to assume command of the squadron. Dahlgren recorded in his diary under the date of 17 June: "And so ends a command of two years of one of the largest fleets ever assembled under American colors--as many as 96 at one time."

C.S.S. Ajax, commanded by Lieutenant Low, arrived at Liverpool, England, from Bermuda. Ajax had been detained at Bermuda by the British Governor after Low had made an unsuccessful attempt to arm his ship under the guise of taking a shipment of guns to Havana. The vessel was released after the news reached Bermuda that the American war had ended in the capitulation of the Confederacy. Upon his arrival at Liverpool, Low turned the ship over to the local port authorities. The former lieutenant of C.S.S. Alabama chose to remain in England rather than return to his homeland. He established his residence in Liverpool where he subsequently became a prosperous shipping and cotton mill executive. Years later Low was presented Alabama's pennant by a Frenchman who had witnessed the Confederate cruiser's sea battle with U.S.S. Kearsarge from a yacht, and had salvaged her pennant. Today, this pennant, seventy-five feet in length and bearing twenty-seven white stars on a blue field, with a red and white tail, is in the possession of John Low's grandson.

Author:  nsimms [ Wed Jun 10, 2015 6:10 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865

June 11, 1865 Sunday
From the 1st thru the 13th of June:
Before burning, Abigail, commanded by Lieutenant Waddell obtained a stove from her for his cabin, one of the many items that had not been provided when C.S.S. Shenandoah hastily left Liverpool the previous Autumn. . He needed it in the ensuing days as he navigated along the frozen shores of Siberia. "I continued as far as the Chi-jinskiki Bay, but found it so full of ice the steamer could not be entered. I then stood along the land of eastern Siberia as far as Tausk Bay, when. she was forced away by the ice, and I left for Shantaski [Shantarski] Island, but I found ice in such quantities before we reached the 150ยบ meridian of east longitude that she was forced to the southward finding ice in almost every direction and apparently closing on her."

"The situation caused anxiety of mind, and I solved the seamanship problem before us. The scene was cold, the mercury several degrees below zero, the ice varied in thickness from fifteen to thirty feet and, although not very firm, was sufficiently so to injure the Shenandoah if we were not very careful. I wanted to reach Shantarski Island (called by whalers Greer Island) for there is fishing there and in the bays southwest of it."

In this chill sea, Shenandoah met severe gales. "The damage from these gales is much increased by the heavy ice which a vessel is likely to be driven on and wrecked. We encountered the first one of those gales to windward of twenty miles of floe ice, and if we had been lying to with the ice under our lea, the Shenandoah would probably have been lost with her entire crew.

"It became imperatively necessary to relieve the ship of her perilous situation. She was run a little distance from and along the floe until a passage was seen from aloft through it with open water beyond. Into this passage she was entered and in a short time she was lying to under close reefed sails with the floe to windward, and this was the solution of that seamanship problem alluded to a little time before, for our dreaded enemy was now become our best friend, the fury of the sea was expended on it and not against the Shenandoah. It was a breakwater for the ship.

"She laid perfectly easy, the water was as smooth as a pond, while the seas on the weather edge of the floe broke furiously, throwing sheets of water twenty feet high, to all appearances a fog bank."

It was so far away we could only hear the hurrying of wind as it piped louder and carried in it a penetrating mist. The Shenandoah being relieved of the threatened danger, the next thought was to prevent her from going into the ice during the thick weather, which now came on in fine rain and sleet. The wind was bitter cold, turning the rain into ice and forming a crust everywhere. The braces, blocks, yards, sails, and all the running rigging was perfectly coated with ice from a half to two inches thick, so that it was impossible to use the braces and icicles of great length and size hung from every portion of the rigging."

"The gale had passed over, and it was calm, the clouds were exhausted, the rosy tints of morn opened upon a scene of enchantment, and when the sunlight burst on us, the flash and sparkle from truck to deck, from bowsprit to topsail awakened exclamations of enthusiastic delight over the fair ship."

"The disposition was evidently not to disturb, but leave to enjoyment the crystal mantle of the Shenandoah. Finally the crew was sent aloft with billets of wood to dislodge the ice and free the running rigging. The large icicles falling from aloft rendered the deck dangerous to move upon, and it soon became covered with clear, beautiful ice, which was removed to the tanks, casks, and every vessel capable of receiving it."

Author:  nsimms [ Thu Jun 11, 2015 6:52 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865

June 12, 1865 Monday
The steamer Sonora arrived in Tampico, Mexico, after running the blockade from Matagorda Bay, Texas. Although originally loaded with 300 bales of cotton, disbanded Confederate troops had seized all but 38 bales.

Author:  nsimms [ Fri Jun 12, 2015 7:17 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865

June 13, 1865 Tuesday
President Johnson appointed William L. Sharkey provisional governor of the state of Mississippi. His duties were to include the early convening of a convention of loyal citizens to alter or amend the state constitution and set up a new regular state government. In another proclamation the President declared trade open east of the Mississippi River except for contraband of war. He also declared Tennessee, which had adopted a constitution and reorganized its government after suppressing the rebellion, restored and the inhabitants free of all disabilities and disqualifications.

Author:  nsimms [ Mon Jun 15, 2015 11:01 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865

June 16, 1865 Friday
For two days C.S.S. Shenandoah had sailed northward in fog that fortunately lifted partly just in time to enable her to miss running aground as she passed west of the Aleutians. Three days later, half way across the world, Commander Bulloch wrote to Lieutenant Waddell, ordering him to desist from further destruction of United States property upon the high seas and all offensive operations against U.S. citizens. These were orders that could not be delivered for many weeks under the best conditions. Therefore, whalers were destined to suffer disastrous blows.

Author:  nsimms [ Tue Jun 16, 2015 7:21 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865

June 17, 1865 Saturday
President Johnson named James Johnson provisional governor of Georgia and Andrew J Hamilton provisional governor of Texas, continuing his policy of attempting to restore representative pro-Union government to the states as soon as possible. Major General Gordon Granger, USA, assumes command of all troops within the State of Texas.

Author:  nsimms [ Thu Jun 18, 2015 9:37 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865

June 19, 1865 Monday
Brigadier General Thomas J. McKean, USA, is assigned command of the Federal District of Southwest Missouri.

Author:  nsimms [ Fri Jun 19, 2015 11:25 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865

June 20, 1865 Tuesday
Brigadier General James A. Williamson, USA, is assigned command of the Federal District of St. Louis, Missouri. Major General George H. Thomas, USA, assumes command of the Federal Military Division of the Tennessee.

Lieutenant Commander John J. Cornwell of U.S.S. Grossbeak reported the capture of the steamer Idaho "a few days since" by Southern guerrillas near Greenville, Mississippi. She was a small trading steamer and was loaded with 400 bales of cotton which had belonged to the Confederacy.

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