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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865
PostPosted: Tue Mar 31, 2015 4:57 pm 
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April 1, 1865 Saturday
“Hold Five Forks at all hazards,” Gen Lee told George E. Pickett ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Pickett ) in the morning. If the far right flank of the Confederate line at Petersburg should fall, the entire retreat route of the Army of Northern Virginia from Petersburg and Richmond would be threatened. As it was, Lee had necessarily attenuated his defenses to the ultimate danger point to send something over 10,000 to the right. Grant’s strategy was obvious: continue to move to the left and westward, forcing the Confederates to weaken their positions. With Sheridan and an infantry corps freed from the siege lines, he had more than sufficient manpower to do so. Pickett’s men dug in, singing “Annie Laurie” and “Dixie.” Late in the afternoon Sheridan’s cavalry and Warren’s Fifth Corps infantry attacked at Five Forks. Since the preceding day many conflicting messages had passed among Federal commanders, with charges of delay laid to Warren. Likewise, on the Confederate side, there were reports that leading generals were having a fish fry (often termed a shad bake) just before the battle, causing their absence from close control. As the dismounted cavalry of Sheridan attacked in front, Warren’s corps got on the left flank of the enemy and both forces successfully crushed the Confederate defenders. During the height of the battle, Sheridan, with permission from Grant, removed Gen Warren as commander of the Fifth Corps. Brevet Major General Charles Griffin ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Griffin ), USA, assumes command of the Federal 5th Army Corps. Sheridan said Warren had been slow, had disobeyed orders, and had not cooperated properly in the attack. Warren eventually was cleared of most of the charges against him, but the stigma of removal from command ruined his future. Five Forks split the remnant of Pickett from the main Confederate army.

The Federals had not only crumpled Lee’s right and seized the Five Forks area, but they almost encircled Petersburg south of the Appomattox River. Now Grant was close to the vital South Side Railroad, an important Confederate supply and retreat route. Before he had news of the battle, Lee advised Davis of the seriousness of the Federal threat and observed that they should be prepared to evacuate their position in front of Richmond and Petersburg to save the army. The figures are disputed, but it appears that Federals suffered about 1000 casualties and captured not fewer than 4500 Confederates of the entire Southern force of a bit over 10,000. The Federals had some 53,000 men available, but Sheridan’s 10,000 cavalry and Warren’s 17,000 foot soldiers did most of the fighting. Humphreys’ large Second Corps was involved in skirmishing on White Oak Road ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Five_Forks and http://www.civilwar.org/battlefields/five-forks.html ).

In North Carolina, while Sherman reorganized his army, a skirmish occurred at Snow Hill. In northern Alabama James H. Wilson’s Federals continued their successful advance toward Selma against Forrest, with skirmishes near Randolph, Maplesville, Plantersville, Ebenezer Church, Centerville, and Trion. Forrest had to pull back his scattered units and attempt to concentrate at Selma. Elsewhere, action included a skirmish at White Oak Creek, Tennessee; a Union expedition from Dalton to Spring Place and the Coosawattee River, Georgia; scouts during most of April from Licking, Missouri; operations by Federals against Indians west of Fort Laramie, Dakota Territory until May 27; and a Northern scout until April 4 from Pine Bluff to Bayou Bartholomew, Arkansas. On the Mobile front skirmishing flared near Blakely, Alabama.

A distraught President Davis wrote Gen Lee that he had “been laboring without much progress to advance the raising of negro troops,” and he admitted, “The distrust is increasing and embarrasses in many ways.” At City Point President Lincoln was serving mainly as an observer and was forwarding messages to Washington on the progress of the Petersburg fighting. C.S.S. Shenandoah put in to Lea Harbor, Ascension Island (now Ponape Island, Eastern Carolines), in the Pacific and captured four Northern whalers. Union tinclad Rodolph was sunk by a torpedo in the Blakely River, Alabama. William Babcock Hazen, USA, and Wesley Merritt, USA, are appointed to Major General.

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Gen Ned Simms
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Blood 'n Guts hisself, a land lovin' pirate. Show me some arty tubes and we'll charge 'em.
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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865
PostPosted: Wed Apr 01, 2015 9:45 pm 
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April 2, 1865 Sunday
“I think it is absolutely necessary that we should abandon our position tonight…” telegraphed Gen Lee at Petersburg to President Davis in Richmond. The Confederate capital of Richmond was doomed, and with it the whole Petersburg-Richmond front. At four-forty in the morning, Federals advanced under a heavy fog along the Petersburg lines. By 7 A.M. the drive was fully under way and was everywhere successful. Horatio Wright’s Sixth Corps dashed through the defenses to the South Side Railroad. Along Hatcher’s Run the Confederate lines vanished. West of Boydton Plank Road, while attempting to rally his men, Lieut Gen A.P. Hill ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A._P._Hill ) was killed by a Federal straggler. Only two forts, Gregg and Baldwin, held out at noon on the western part of the Petersburg lines, and retreat was possible only by crossing the Appomattox River.

Lee determined to hold inner fortifications until night enabled him to withdraw. The delaying action at Forts Gregg and Baldwin did buy enough time for new lines to be formed. In a few places the Confederates stiffened in the afternoon but it was obvious they had to pull out. Orders were issued in midafternoon to evacuate Petersburg and for the defenders north of the James River to retreat through Richmond and join the remainder of the Army of Northern Virginia. The retreat soon began, with Amelia Court House, some forty miles west, the concentration point. Federals may have numbered over 63,000 engaged with 625 killed, 3189 wounded, and 326 missing for 4140 total. Possibly 18,500 Confederates were engaged; losses are unknown. During the day Lee told an officer, “This is a sad business, colonel. It has happened as I told them in Richmond it would happen. The line has been stretched until it is broken.”

For the Federals it had been a well-organized attack to reap the reward of Five Forks and the long months of siege and extending of the lines. Some called the Union charge the deathblow of Lee’s army, and a reporter wrote, “With that Sunday’s sun the hope of the Rebels set, never to rise again.”

Also in the Petersburg area there was an engagement at Sutherland’s Station on the South Side Railroad, skirmishing at Gravelly Ford on Hatcher’s Run and action at Scott’s Cross Roads.

In Richmond a messenger had entered St Paul’s Church as the minister gave the prayer for the President of the Confederate States. President Davis left quietly and went to his office to learn of the disaster to Lee’s army. Mrs Davis and the children had already left the capital. By 11 P.M. Davis and most of the Cabinet departed on a special train for Danville, Virginia. Scenes in Richmond were heart-rending as the news spread. Many wept openly and then prepared either to stay and face the enemy or to attempt evacuation. Rail stations were jammed and the streets filled with many of the local citizens and refugees crowding the city. Soon the unruly began looting. Inmates broke from the state prison and the Local Defense Brigade was unable to keep order. Government records were either sent away or burned. Cotton, tobacco, and military stores were set afire, and the fires soon raged out of control; others were set by looters. Shells from the arsenals roared upward as the main section of Richmond became a great inferno. Many business houses, hotels, and residences, as well as factories and warehouses, were destroyed. In the James River Confederate gunboats exploded, shaking the city anew. After four years and many threats, Richmond at last was falling. On the train going into the night toward Danville, “Silence reigned over the fugitives.” But the Confederate government still existed in transit; the war was not quite over.

At Selma, Alabama some 12,000 Federal troops of James Harrison Wilson had reached near the city after besting Forrest’s men in various small engagements for several days. Forrest attempted to bring his about 7000 to 8000 men into Selma, but the investment by Wilson prevented it. Department commander Richard Taylor barely escaped as he left to gather men for Forrest. Near evening Wilson’s men attacked the thinly held works of Selma. The charge was completely successful and confusion reigned. Forrest and a few of his officers and men escaped. The Federals captured 2700 prisoners, about 40 guns, large stores of supplies, plus the important manufacturing center of Selma. The Union victors, with light casualties, now turned toward Montgomery, Alabama. At last Forrest, the invincible, had been beaten, but assuredly his force was no longer what it had been in numbers or in spirit.

On the Mobile front, the siege of Fort Blakely began, while that of Spanish Fort continued. It was only a question of time before overwhelming Federal numbers would force the capitulation of Mobile itself. But by now it was too late for the campaign to be of much strategic importance.

Elsewhere, skirmishing broke out near Goldsborough, North Carolina and Van Buren and Hickory Station, Arkansas. Two Union expeditions in Louisiana lasted several days, one from Thibodeaux, Bayou City, and Brashear City to Lake Verret and The Park, and the other from The Hermitage to French Settlement. Charles Griffin, USA, is appointed to Major General. Major General Joseph A. Mower ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_A._Mower ), USA, assumes command of the Federal 20th Army Corps.

President Lincoln went to the front at Petersburg and saw some of the fighting from a distance, meanwhile keeping Washington informed as to the progress of Grant’s armies. At eight-fifteen in the evening he telegraphed Grant, “Allow me to tender to you, and all with you, the nations grateful thanks for this additional, and magnificent success.”

_________________
Gen Ned Simms
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Blood 'n Guts hisself, a land lovin' pirate. Show me some arty tubes and we'll charge 'em.
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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865
PostPosted: Thu Apr 02, 2015 5:20 pm 
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April 3, 1865 Monday
“I saw them unfurl a tiny flag, and I sank on my knees, and the bitter, bitter tears came in a torrent.” So wrote Mrs Mary A. Fontaine of Richmond as Federal cavalry dashed into the city in the morning. The first flag, a small guidon, was raised by Maj Atherton H. Stevens, Jr of Massachusetts over the State House, erstwhile Capitol of the Confederacy. As the people, many of them jubilant Negroes, swarmed into the streets, much of the city still in flames, more Federals arrived. “Then the Cavalry thundered at a furious gallop…. Then the infantry came playing “The Girl I left Behind me,” that dear old air that we heard our brave men so often play; then the negro troops playing ‘Dixie’.” An eyewitness wrote that the former slaves in Richmond were “completely crazed, they danced and shouted, men hugged each other, and women kissed.” Looting continued, with one old woman seen rolling a huge sofa in the street. Dozens of bands competed with each other, “Oh! It was too awful to remember, if it were possible to be erased, but that can not be.” A reporter wrote, “This town is the Rebellion; it is all we have directly striven for.” Now this was suddenly changed. Maj Gen Godfrey Weitzel ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Godfrey_Weitzel ), with troops from the Army of the James, commanded the occupation. At eight-fifteen, in the City Hall, he received the surrender. Union troops immediately set about to restore order and subdue the fires. By midafternoon progress had been made as Richmond slowly quieted down.

Petersburg, too, was occupied by Federal troops, but destruction there was largely averted. At a private home President Lincoln and Gen Grant conferred. Mr Lincoln reviewed the troops passing through the city, which had undergone more than nine months of siege.

Meanwhile, Lee’s army struggled westward by various roads in the general direction of Amelia Court House. Grant pursued – not in the rear, but on a somewhat parallel route heading toward Burkeville to intercept Lee and keep him from junction with Johnston in North Carolina. Sheridan’s troops had pressed the retiring Confederates on the Namozine Church Road and fought a skirmish ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Namozine_Church ).

The train from Richmond to Danville moved slowly the night of April 2-3 due to roadbed difficulties. But by midafternoon the cars bearing President Davis, most of the Cabinet, and many records arrived in Danville, Virginia where citizens had hurriedly prepared to receive their guests. Headquarters for the President were established in the home of Maj W.T. Sutherlin. Davis declared that he was not abandoning the cause.

General Lee, in his hardpressed and hurried evacuation of Richmond, neglected to apprise Commodore John R. Tucker, commanding the Confederate Naval Brigade at Drewry's Bluff on the James River, of the projected evacuation of the capital. Tucker maintained his station until the 3rd when he saw the smoke from the burning ironclads and learned that Confederate troops were streaming out of Richmond. Tucker then joined the Naval Brigade to Major General Custis Lee's division of Lieutenant General Richard S. Ewell's corps. The brigade participated in Ewell's rear guard stand at Sailor's Creek on 6 April which was intended to cover the westward retreat. The Naval Brigade was captured along with Ewell's entire corps but was the last unit in the corps to surrender. Tucker tendered his sword to Lieutenant General J. Warren Keifer. Some years after the war, when Keifer had become a prominent member of Congress, he returned the sword to the ex-Confederate naval officer.

Fifty of the sixty Midshipmen at the Confederate. Naval Academy, under the command of Lieutenant William H. Parker, escorted the archives of the government and the specie and bullion of the treasury from Richmond to Danville. There, Midshipman Raphael Semmes, junior, was detached from the escort corps and detailed to the staff of his father. The Midshipmen Corps continued to be entrusted with this select guard duty during subsequent moves of the archives and treasury to Charlotte, North Carolina; Washington, Georgia; Augusta, Georgia; and finally to Abbeville, South Carolina

At Northport, near Tuscaloosa, Alabama an action broke out between the cavalry of Wilson and Forrest. In addition, there were skirmishes at Mount Pleasant, Tennessee; Hillsville, Virginia; and a two-day Federal scout form Huntsville to near Vienna, Alabama. Federals pursued bushwhackers near Farmington, Missouri; and until April 11 there was a Union expedition to Asheville, North Carolina.

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Gen Ned Simms
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Blood 'n Guts hisself, a land lovin' pirate. Show me some arty tubes and we'll charge 'em.
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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865
PostPosted: Fri Apr 03, 2015 8:51 pm 
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April 4, 1865 Tuesday
President Lincoln traveled up the James River on River Queen, transferred to U.S.S. Malvern, and then had to take a smaller vessel, a gig rowed by twelve sailors. The party landed in Richmond not far from Libby Prison. Adm D.D. Porter, three other officers, and ten sailors armed with carbines served as the meager escort for the President as he walked to the White House of the Confederacy. Crowds surrounded the President, mostly cheering and grateful Negroes, although many rowdies were still abroad in the city. He toured the home President Davis had lately vacated and conferred with Maj Gen Godfrey Weitzel. In the afternoon the President, well escorted this time, drove through the city. Before leaving Richmond, Mr Lincoln also talked with John A. Campbell, former U.S. Supreme Court justice and former Assistant Secretary of War for the Confederacy. Judge Campbell admitted the war was over and urged Lincoln to consult with public men of Virginia as to restoration of peace and order. The President returned to Malvern for the night.

The retreating Army of Northern Virginia skirmished with Federals at Tabernacle Church or Beaver Pond Creek, and at Amelia Court House. By the fifth Lee’s entire army was at the Court House. But the expected supplies were not there and Lee’s army had to scrounge the neighborhood for sustenance. This lack of supplies, available at Lynchburg and Richmond, brought intense postwar discussion, with the apparently unfounded charge that they had been delayed because President Davis was using the necessary railroad equipment. It was probably caused by confusion and disrupted communications. Sheridan arrived at Jetersville on the Danville Railroad southwest of Amelia Court House and thus blocked Lee’s further use of that route toward North Carolina.

In Alabama Federal cavalry of James H. Wilson entered Tuscaloosa.

At the new capital of the Confederacy in Danville, Virginia, President Davis issued a proclamation to the remaining people of the crumbling nation, “It would be unwise, even if it were possible, to conceal the great moral, as well as material injury to our cause that must result from the occupation of Richmond by the enemy. It is equally unwise and unworthy of us, as patriots engaged in a most sacred cause, to allow our energies to falter, our spirits to grow faint, or our efforts to become relaxed, under reverses however calamitous.” He admitted there was now a new phase of the conflict, but he vowed to maintain the struggle.

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Gen Ned Simms
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Blood 'n Guts hisself, a land lovin' pirate. Show me some arty tubes and we'll charge 'em.
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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865
PostPosted: Sat Apr 04, 2015 8:05 pm 
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April 5, 1865 Wednesday
Gen Lee was confounded by the lack of supplies at Amelia Court House, Virginia and later observed, “This delay was fatal and could not be retrieved.” With Sheridan and infantry in front of him near Jetersville, he could no longer use the Danville Railroad and turned toward Farmville, where supplies were ordered from Lynchburg by railroad. Sheridan wanted to attack but Meade refrained until more troops could arrive. There was skirmishing at Paine’s Cross Roads and an engagement at Amelia Springs.

At Danville President Davis wrote his wife that he was out of touch with Lee but that he was fitting up an executive office. “I am unwilling to leave Virginia,” he stated. In Richmond President Lincoln came ashore again from Malvern. For a second time he conferred with John A. Campbell and then read a statement. It said peace was possible only through restoration of the national authority throughout all the states, that there must be no receding on the abolition of slavery, and that hostilities would not cease short of an end to the war and disbanding of all hostile forces. Campbell said the President stated he was contemplating calling the Virginia legislature together to vote restoration of the state to the Union. The exact words and meaning of this proposal became a subject for much controversy, and still are not clear. The President then returned to City Point. At six o’clock he received news that Sec of State Seward had been critically injured in a carriage accident in Washington that afternoon.

Two Federal expeditions started out in South Carolina: one until April 15 from Charleston to the Santee River, and another until April 25 from Georgetown to Camden. Confederates burned two Federal steamers near Maple Cypress and Cowpen Landing, North Carolina. There also was an expedition against Indians on the west coast from Camp Bidwell to Antelope Creek, California; and for three days Federals operated a scout from Huntsville to New Market and Maysville, Alabama. Frederick Tracy Dent, USA, is appointed to Brigadier General.

Steamer Harriet DeFord was boarded and seized in Chesapeake Bay, 30 miles below Annapolis, Maryland, by a party of 27 Confederate guerrillas led by Captain T. Fitzhugh. A naval detachment under Lieutenant Commander Edward Hooker was sent in pursuit and found, Harriet DeFord trapped in Dimer's Creek, Virginia, burned to the water's edge. A captive reported that a pilot had taken the steamer into the creek and that she went aground several times. Some of the cargo was thrown overboard to lighten the ship and the remainder was unloaded with the help of local farmers before the torch was put to the steamer.

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Gen Ned Simms
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Blood 'n Guts hisself, a land lovin' pirate. Show me some arty tubes and we'll charge 'em.
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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865
PostPosted: Sun Apr 05, 2015 8:59 pm 
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April 6, 1865 Thursday
The last major engagement ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appomattox_Campaign ) occurred between the Army of Northern Virginia and the Army of the Potomac ( http://www.civilwar.org/battlefields/sa ... creek.html and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Sailor%27s_Creek ). Lee’s army was nearing the Farmville and High Bridge crossings of the Appomattox River. Crossing the stream was imperative for safety. The army attempted to keep together, but it was impossible. In the bottom land of Sayler’s Creek, the retreating column split and the Federals moved in. Lee, Longstreet, and William Mahone ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Mahone ) continued on, unaware of the gap between them and the forces of Ewell and R.H. Anderson. The wagons were ordered on a detour to cross the river. John B. Gordon’s troops followed the wagons by mistake. Anderson and Ewell were quickly pressed back, but mounted a countercharge which failed in face of strong artillery fire. Federal flanks closed in toward the middle and Ewell was forced to surrender. Farther north, down Sayler’s Creek, Gordon’s Southerners were heavily engaged. Only a few of his men cut their way out. Some 8000 Confederates surrendered; Federals suffered about 1180 casualties. Sheridan’s cavalry and Horatio Wright’s Sixth Corps did most of the work against Ewell while the Second Corps of A.A. Humphreys confronted Gordon. It is estimated that the loss represented about a third of the men Lee had when he left Amelia Court House – a huge number in view of the already decimated Confederate ranks. Longstreet meanwhile retired toward Farmville and halted briefly at Rice Station. E.O.C. Ord’s Federal column made some contact with Longstreet. There was considerable skirmishing along much of the route of Lee’s retiring army.

In southwest Virginia there was action at Wytheville and also an affair near Charles Town, West Virginia. In Alabama Wilson’s cavalry and Forrest’s remaining men fought skirmishes near Lanier’s Mills, Sipsey Creek, and King’s Store.

At City Point President Lincoln wrote Gen Weitzel in Richmond, “It has been intimated to me that the gentlemen who have acted as the Legislature of Virginia, in support of the rebellion, may now now [sic] desire to assemble at Richmond, and take measures to withdraw the Virginia troops, and other support from resistance to the General government. If they attempt it, give them permission and protection….”

Brevet Brigadier General Theodore Read ( http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cg ... id=7471487 ), USA, is killed in a pistol duel with Brigadier General James Dearing ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Dearing ), CSA, during hostilities at High Bridge, Virginia. General Dearing is mortally wounded dying on April 23, 1865. Major General John Austin Wharton ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_A._Wharton ), CSA, is shot to death in his Houston, Texas, hotel room by Colonel George W. Baylor, 2nd Confederate Texas Cavalry, after arguing over military affairs.

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Gen Ned Simms
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Blood 'n Guts hisself, a land lovin' pirate. Show me some arty tubes and we'll charge 'em.
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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865
PostPosted: Mon Apr 06, 2015 8:37 pm 
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April 7, 1865 Friday
Grant opened correspondence with Lee: “The result of the last week must convince you of the hopelessness of further resistance on the part of the Army of Northern Virginia in this struggle. I feel that it is so, and regard it as my duty to shift from myself the responsibility of any further effusion of blood, by asking of you the surrender of that portion of the C.S. Army known as the Army of Northern Virginia.” Lee’s reply, received by Grant at Farmville on April 8, said that although he did not entertain “the opinion you express of the hopelessness of further resistance on the part of the Army of Northern Virginia, I reciprocate your desire to avoid useless effusion of blood, and therefore, before considering your proposition, ask the terms you will offer on condition of its surrender.”

Meanwhile, the battered Confederates were receiving more punishment, but did repulse the Federals in an engagement near Farmville and crossed the Appomattox River to continue their retreat on the north side. Longstreet crossed the Appomattox River at Farmville and other troops crossed at High Bridge, where William Mahone’s men guarded the crossing of the wagon train on the wagon bridge near the railroad span. The Confederates attempted in vain to burn the bridges. At Farmville Lee’s men had received rations. The Yankees eventually crossed in force at High Bridge ad engaged the enemy north of the Appomattox River before being repulsed. Nevertheless Lee’s retreat had been delayed for several irreplaceable hours and Sheridan with infantry behind him was able to move west and then north to block Lee at Appomattox Station and Court House. Thus Lee was about to be squeezed between overwhelming Federal force on the east and west. Brigadier General Thomas Alfred Smyth ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Alfred_Smyth ), USA, is mortally wounded by a Confederate sharpshooter, shot in the mouth while leading his command, during hostilities at Farmville, Virginia, dying two days later, April 9, 1865.

Wilson’s and Forrest’s men skirmished at Fike’s Ferry on the Cahawba River, Alabama; and there was a Federal scout near Mobile from Blakely toward Stockton, Alabama as the siege went on.

Tennessee becomes the 18th state to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, and an avowed abolitionist and unionist, W.G. “Parson” Brownlow, was inaugurated as governor. The U.S. State Department and Britain opened correspondence over the claims arising from the depredations of the Confederate raider Alabama.

At City Point President Lincoln wired Grant that “Gen. Sheridan says ‘If the thing is pressed I think that Lee will surrender.’ Let the thing be pressed.” Meanwhile, at Danville President Davis and his Cabinet were trying to do what they could, but their efforts would have little effect.

_________________
Gen Ned Simms
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Blood 'n Guts hisself, a land lovin' pirate. Show me some arty tubes and we'll charge 'em.
VMI Class of '00


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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865
PostPosted: Tue Apr 07, 2015 9:45 pm 
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April 8, 1865 Saturday
The road to Lynchburg, next goal of Lee’s badly harried army, passed through hamlets and villages and Appomattox Station near Appomattox Court House ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appomattox_Campaign ). Behind what was left of the Army of Northern Virginia was Meade with the Second and Sixth Corps of Grant under Humphreys and Wright. To the south, Sheridan’s cavalry, Warren’s old Fifth Corps now under Charles Griffin, and some of Ord’s men of the Army of the James were by evening in front of Lee and blocking the route to Lynchburg. Skirmishing occurred throughout the day, but Meade was unable to bring on a general engagement. Sheridan’s cavalry seized Confederate supply trains at Appomattox Station.

Grant, at Farmville, had received Lee’s note of April 7 asking what terms the Union offered. Grant replied, “Peace being my great desire, there is but one condition I would insist upon, namely that the men and officers surrendered shall be disqualified from taking up arms again against the Government of the United States until properly exchanged.” He offered to meet with Lee to receive a surrender. Later in the day, Lee replied, “I did not intend to propose the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia, but to ask the terms of your proposition.” He did not think “the emergency has arisen to call for the surrender of this army….” But still Lee wanted to talk with Grant.

In the morning Lee was informed that a number of officers had conferred the evening before and agreed the army could not get through to join Johnston and that he ought to open negotiations. Lee refused the suggestion, made to spare him from taking the lead in surrender. Other officers disagreed also. That night, near Appomattox, Lee held his final council of war. What could they do? If there was infantry as well as cavalry in front of them it would be impossible to break through, but it had to be tried.

At Danville President Davis got information from Sec of War Breckinridge and messenger John S. Wise that the situation was critical. Nevertheless, a certain amount of routine business continued. President Lincoln again visited Petersburg and late in the evening left City Point by boat for Washington.

Invested by General Canby's troops and bombarded heavily by the big guns of Rear Admiral Thatcher's ships, Spanish Fort and Fort Alexis, keys to Mobile, finally fell. The Confederate defenders, who suffered heavy casualties during the siege of the forts, were supported by a squadron under Flag Officer Ebenezer Farrand, including C.S.S. Nashville, Morgan, Huntsville, Tuscaloosa, and Baltic. At a weak point in the thinly held Confederate line the Federal troops charged, failing at first and then succeeding in taking a portion of the lines. Using a narrow escape passage the Southern defenders evacuated Spanish Fort during the night ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Spanish_Fort ).

In North Carolina there was action at Martinsville. Federals pursued guerrillas in northeast Missouri, and carried out scouts from Vienna and Fairfax Court House into Loudoun County, Virginia.

Lieutenant W. H. Parker, commander of the Midshipmen who were escorting the Confederate archives and treasury, arrived in Charlotte, North Carolina, from Danville and deposited the important cargo in the Confederate Mint located in that city. While awaiting further orders, Parker learned that a Union cavalry detachment was nearby and since the city was without military protection, the naval officer, on his own initiative, prepared to move the archives and treasury southward. He added the uniformed personnel of the local Navy Yard, to his escort, bringing its numbers up to 150 and drew quantities of provisions from the naval warehouse. Parker offered the protection of his command to Mrs. Jefferson Davis, who had only recently arrived in Charlotte, and strongly urged that she accompany him southward. Mrs. Davis accepted Parker's offer, and on the 11th the Navy-escorted entourage bearing the archives, treasury, and first lady of the Confederacy set out from Charlotte.

_________________
Gen Ned Simms
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Blood 'n Guts hisself, a land lovin' pirate. Show me some arty tubes and we'll charge 'em.
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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865
PostPosted: Wed Apr 08, 2015 11:34 pm 
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April 9, 1865 Sunday
On Palm Sunday a clear spring sun rose in Virginia. But when the sun went down, with it went “the hopes of a people who, with prayers, and tears, and blood, had striven to uphold that fallen flag.” Confederate soldier Edward M. Boykin told of men who came “to their officers with tears streaming from their eyes, and asked what it all meant, and would, at that moment, I know, have rather died the night before than see the sun rise on such a day as this.” Robert E. Lee had surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to Ulysses S. Grant.

At dawn, near Appomattox Station, the Confederates had attacked with the hope of forcing a passage through the Federals in front of them. At first the infantry of Gordon and Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry were successful, but there was more than just enemy cavalry in front of them. The route was block by infantry. The Union forces drove in, and on the east other Federals under Meade attacked the Confederate rear guard. Escape was impossible. After hearing the news, Gen Lee said, “It would be useless and therefore cruel to provoke the further effusion of blood, and I have arranged to meet with General Grant with a view to surrender….” Early in the day, Grant had written Lee that he had “no authority to treat on the subject of peace.” Only surrender was possible. Lee could but reply and request an interview: “I ask a suspension of hostilities pending the adjustment of the terms of the surrender of this army….”

There was some confusion on various parts of the field – truce flags, some small arms fire, Federal Brig Gen Custer demanding the surrender of Confederates. But the drama centered on the neat, comfortable home of Wilmer McLean at Appomattox Court House. There, in the early afternoon, Gen Lee and one aide met Gen Grant, his staff, and several of the major commanders – Sheridan, Ord, and others, although Meade was not present. After pleasantries, Lee called attention to the matter at hand. There was a brief discussion of terms, which Grant said were the same as in his message: officers and men surrendered were to be paroled and disqualified from taking up arms until properly exchanged; arms, ammunition, and supplies were to be turned over as captured property. This was in line with Lincoln’s direct instructions to Grant of March 3. The army was not to arrange a peace – just take care of surrender.

Grant wrote out his proposal, went over it with his staff, and presented it to Lee. The terms did not include surrender of side arms of officers or of their private horses or baggage, and allowed each officer and man to go home and not be disturbed as long as parole was observed. Lee then brought up the fact that cavalrymen and artillerists owned their own horses, which would be needed for the spring planting. After a short conference Grant agreed to let those who claimed horses have them. Arrangements also were made to feed Lee’s army from Federal supplies. Thus it was completed – a document from Grant to Lee giving terms of surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia, and one from Lee to Grant accepting those terms. Legend to the contrary, Lee did not surrender his sword to Grant.

The contrast between the two Generals at the confrontation in the living room of the McLean House was most striking. Grant's mud splattered uniform was that of a private with only the shoulder straps of a Lieutenant General to designate his rank. His uniform was unbuttoned at the neck and was unadorned by either sword or spurs. Lee on the other hand had taken special pains for this last act of the drama as if dressing for execution. His uniform was immaculate, his jewel studded sword of the finest workmanship. His well-polished boots were ornamented with red stitching and set off by a handsome pair of spurs.

Lee returned to his waiting, anxious army. As the men crowded around him, he spoke softly, “I have done for you all that it was in my power to do. You have done all your duty. Leave the result to God. Go to your homes and resume your occupations. Obey the laws and become as good citizens as you were soldiers.” Hats off, the men stood with “swimming eyes.” Lee rode bareheaded, his eyes to neither left nor right.

Of course, the war was not over; there were armies in the field and a government about to take flight from Danville. But never again would the grand, proud Armies of the Potomac and Northern Virginia clash. It was only after a gently reminder somewhat later in the afternoon that Gen Grant remembered to inform Washington of what had transpired.

President Lincoln arrived back in Washington in early evening as the news was spreading throughout the land. Bonfires sprang up as crowds jammed streets. In Chicago one hundred cannon awakened sleepers, and bells rang. It was the same throughout the North. In the Army of the Potomac, flags waved, bands played, cannon boomed, and the air was filled with knapsacks, canteens, tin cups, and roaring cheers. That, too, soon ended; the noise receded, a silence of respect to the fallen dead and the vanquished foe fell over Appomattox. Four years of war in Virginia had ended.

At Mobile, things were also concluding. The combined Federal army of E.R.S. Canby attacked Fort Blakely now that Spanish Fort had fallen. The assault was successful without heavy loss and only Forts Huger and Tracy remained in action against the Federals. The city was virtually open for occupation. At Danville President Davis was mainly concerned with building entrenchments for defense.

Blockade runner Chameleon (formerly C.S.S. Tallahassee), Lieutenant Wilkinson, put into Liverpool, England. With the fall of both Fort Fisher and Charleston in January and February respectively, Wilkinson had been unable to deliver his cargo of provisions destined for General Lee's destitute army defending Richmond. Sealed off from the Confederacy, Wilkinson off-loaded his cargo at Nassau, took on board extra coal and set a course for Liverpool with the intention of turning the ship over to Commander Bulloch. However, the news of the fall of Richmond reached England on the 15th, followed a week later by the news of General Lee's surrender at Appomattox. Thus, the ship was seized by the British government and her officers and men, reported Wilkinson, "were turned adrift with the wide world before them where to choose." Wilkinson established his residence in Nova Scotia where he lived for a number of years before eventually returning to his native Virginia. The ex-Confederate ship was subsequently sold by the English government and was being prepared for service in the merchant marine under the name Amelia when the American government initiated court action to gain possession of the vessel. The court awarded the ship to the United States and she was turned over to the American consul at Liverpool on 26 April 1866.

_________________
Gen Ned Simms
1/1/XIV Corps/AotC
Blood 'n Guts hisself, a land lovin' pirate. Show me some arty tubes and we'll charge 'em.
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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865
PostPosted: Thu Apr 09, 2015 3:13 pm 
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April 10, 1865 Monday
As joyous citizens thronged the streets of Northern cities, villages, and hamlets, the armies at Appomattox began the business of parole, feeding the Confederates, and making various arrangements before Lee’s men could go home. News of the surrender arrived at Danville late in the afternoon. By evening what was left of the Confederate government took to the railroad again and headed for Greensborough, North Carolina fearful that the cavalry of Stoneman in the area might overtake them.

President Lincoln was serenaded several times during the day by relieved and happy crowds in Washington. He promised to make a more formal utterance the following evening. The President asked the band of one group to play “Dixie,” as it was “one of the best tunes I have ever heard.”

At Mobile Forts Huger and Tracy kept up their bombardment; but it was clear that with less than 5,000 Confederates at hand, Maj Gen D.H. Maury ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dabney_H._Maury ) would be forced to evacuate the city. Wilson’s cavalry skirmished at Lowndesborough and Benton, Alabama and there were brief skirmishes at Burke’s Station and Arundel’s Farm, Virginia. Sherman’s army in North Carolina took up the march once more, moving out toward Raleigh with skirmishing at Boonville, Moccasin Swamp, and Nahunta Station.

Gen R.E. Lee issued his last general orders. “After four years of arduous service, marked by unsurpassed courage and fortitude, the Army of Northern Virginia has been compelled to yield to overwhelming numbers and resources…. By the terms of the agreement officers and men can return to their homes and remain until exchanged. You will take with you the satisfaction that proceeds from the consciousness of duty faithfully performed, and I earnestly pray that a Merciful God will extend to you His blessing and protection. With an increasing admiration of your constancy and devotion to your country, and a grateful remembrance of your kind and generous considerations for myself, I bid you an affectionate farewell.”

As General Order No 9 was being prepared, word came to Gen Lee that Grant was on his way. Lee went to meet him and the two conferred for some time. Lee hoped there would be no more sacrifice of life; Grant urged Lee to advise surrender of all the Confederate armies. Lee replied that this was up to President Davis. Other officers, including Meade, visited Lee. Memories and curiosity seemed to draw them all together.

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Gen Ned Simms
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Blood 'n Guts hisself, a land lovin' pirate. Show me some arty tubes and we'll charge 'em.
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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865
PostPosted: Fri Apr 10, 2015 4:31 pm 
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April 11, 1865 Tuesday
At Mobile the remaining defenses of Forts Huger and Tracy were abandoned, and Gen Maury began evacuation of the city itself, which was completed by Wednesday morning, April 12. Works were dismantled, stores removed, and only a rear guard remained the night of April 11.

Sherman’s troops continued to advance toward Goldsborough, North Carolina and entered Smithfield to learn the news of Lee’s surrender. A Southern woman heard the wild shouting, and said to her children, “Now father will come home.” But the advance was not without some fighting, at Smithfield, near Beulah and Pikeville. Stoneman’s Union cavalry, farther west in North Carolina, fought skirmishes at Shallow Ford and near Mocksville. There was Northern scouting from Winchester, Virginia to Timber Ridge, West Virginia; also scouting for a couple of days and a skirmish at St Charles, Arkansas. U.S.S. Sea Bird, commanded by Acting Master Ezra L. Robbins, seized sloops Florida and Annie with cargoes of cotton off Crystal River, Florida. Both were subsequently destroyed.

The Confederate government train arrived at Greensborough, North Carolina early in the day to cold response compared to what they had received at Danville, Virginia. Citizens were concerned about threatened reprisals from Federal troops.

President Lincoln spoke to an enthusiastic crowd from a window of the White House. But it was hardly a victory speech. He expressed the hope for “a righteous and speedy peace” and then discussed reconstruction. He admitted the future was “fraught with great difficulty.” A beginning had to be made with “disorganized and discordant elements,” and he mentioned the conflict of opinion in the North as to reconstruction. The President went on to defend his policy in setting up a new state government in Louisiana. He conceded that the seceded states “are out of their proper practical relation with the Union; and that the sole object of the government, civil and military, in regard to those States is to again get them into that proper practical relation.” Mr Lincoln considered discussion of whether the states had left the Union immaterial. He did say he would prefer to have Louisiana give the elective franchise to “the very intelligent” Negro and to Negro soldiers. Lincoln admitted the difficulties of reconstruction and desired that plans be kept flexible. It was a serious, anxious speech, full of the future – and it was to be his last.

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Gen Ned Simms
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Blood 'n Guts hisself, a land lovin' pirate. Show me some arty tubes and we'll charge 'em.
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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865
PostPosted: Sat Apr 11, 2015 3:42 pm 
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April 12, 1865 Wednesday
The final major city of the Confederacy fell. Federal troops of Gen E.R.S. Canby entered Mobile, Alabama following Confederate evacuation during the night of April 11. The capture came much too late to have any effect upon the war. Confederate commander D.H. Maury had removed what supplies he could, burned the cotton, and sent a message to the Union fleet informing them that Confederates were leaving. Maury’s force reached Meridian, Mississippi unopposed and began refitting with the hope of joining Johnston in North Carolina. The defenses of Mobile had been strong, but the Confederates were unable to man them in view of their slim numbers and the Federals’ overpowering strength. Federal losses numbered 232 killed, 1303 wounded, and 43 missing for 1578 casualties in the various operations against Mobile. Before the evacuation of the city, ironclads C.S.S. Huntsville and Tuscaloosa were sunk in Spanish River. C.S.S. Nashville, Baltic, and Morgan sped up the Tombigbee River to avoid capture. With the Stars and Stripes raised over Mobile, the Union ironclads steamed upriver in pursuit of the Confederate ships.

James Harrison Wilson’s cavalry occupied Montgomery, Alabama after a skirmish on the Columbus Road. Sherman’s army was nearing Raleigh, North Carolina in its renewed advance against Johnston, with actions near Raleigh and at Swift Creek. Farther west, Stoneman’s Federal cavalry moved toward Salisbury and, at Grant’s Creek, charged some 3000 Confederate defenders. They captured about 1300 Confederates, and occupied Salisbury. There was a two-day Union expedition from Port Hudson to Jackson, Louisiana; a scout from Tallahassa Mission, Indian Territory; a five-day scout from Dakota City, Nebraska Territory; and a scout until April 25 from Fort Stanton, New Mexico Territory.

A ceremony took place at Appomattox Court House. Federal troops formed along the principal street to await the formal laying down of battle flags and arms by the Confederates. Gen Joshua Chamberlain of Maine described it: “On they come, with the old swinging route step and swaying battleflags. In the van, the proud Confederate ensign…. Before us in proud humiliation stood the embodiment of manhood; men whom neither toils and sufferings, nor the fact of death, nor disaster, nor hopelessness could bend from their resolve; standing before us now, thin, worn, and famished, but erect, and with eyes looking level into ours, waking memories that bound us together as no other bond.” As the bugle sounded the Federal line shifted to the marching salute of carry arms. Gen Gordon, riding heavy in spirit, saw the salute, whirled on his horse, dropped the point of his sword to the boot toe and ordered carry arms – “honor answering honor.” And then the battle worn colors of the regiments were folded and laid down until only the Federal colors were against the sky. Memories, tears, victory, defeat blended into one. Of Lee, a Confederate soldier wrote, “We who live today shall never see his like again, and whether our posterity does is problematical.”

At Greensborough, North Carolina President Davis met with Genls J.E. Johnston and Beauregard and his Cabinet. The generals felt it was not possible for the army in North Carolina to resist Sherman. Johnston recommended negotiations. But Davis considered further negotiations futile; only surrender would be accepted. Judah Benjamin agreed with Davis, but the others sided with Johnston, so the general was empowered to meet with Sherman.

President Lincoln was now greatly concerned with reconstruction. To Gen Weitzel at Richmond he wired that if there was no sign of the Virginia legislature convening, the offer should be withdrawn. In another telegraph to Weitzel, Lincoln said Judge Campbell was wrong in assuming Lincoln called the insurgent legislature of Virginia together. The President said, “I have done no such thing. I spoke of them not as a Legislature, but as ‘the gentlemen who acted as the Legislature of Virginia in support of the rebellion.’” He denied they were the rightful legislature. The President therefore told Weitzel not to let them assemble. Of course, Judge Campbell had understood otherwise and it seems that now, facing opposition in the Cabinet on this policy Lincoln had thought better of calling the legislature.

Having completed preparations for sailing from Lea Harbor, Lieutenant Waddell made his farewell call on the local "king" with whom he had become friendly. "His majesty," Waddell recorded, asked, "what was to be done with our prisoners. He supposed they would all be put to death, as he considered it. right to make such disposition of one's enemies."

"I told him they would not be harmed, and that in civilized warfare men destroyed those in armed resistance and paroled the unarmed."

"But," said his Majesty, "war cannot be considered civilized, and those who make war on an unoffending people are a bad people and do not deserve to live."

"I told the king I would sail the following day, the 13th of April, and should tell our President of the kind hospitality he had shown to the officers of the Shenandoah and the respect he had paid our flag.

"He said, 'Tell Jeff Davis he is my brother and a big warrior; that (we are) very poor, but that our tribes are friends. If he will send your steamer for me, I will visit him in his country. I send these two chickens to Jeff Davis (the chickens were dead) and some cocoanuts which he will find good.' "

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Gen Ned Simms
1/1/XIV Corps/AotC
Blood 'n Guts hisself, a land lovin' pirate. Show me some arty tubes and we'll charge 'em.
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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865
PostPosted: Sun Apr 12, 2015 6:38 pm 
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April 13, 1865 Thursday
The Federal men of Sherman entered Raleigh, North Carolina in heavy rain and after skirmishing near Raleigh and at Morrisville, North Carolina. They were heading toward Johnston’s main army and the temporary Confederate capital at Greensborough. Military action elsewhere was simmering down, with skirmishing at Whistler or Eight Mile Creek Bridge and at Wetumpka, Alabama. Federal scouts operated about Lexington, Kentucky. U.S.S. Ida fell victim to a torpedo in Mobile Bay, the fifth ship to be lost in five weeks in the area.

Sec of War Stanton ordered the draft halted and curtailed purchases of war materiel. The number of officers was reduced and many military restrictions removed as first steps in demobilization. President Lincoln conferred with Gen Grant, Stanton, Welles, and others.

Gen Johnston left Greensborough to rejoin his army at Hillsborough, North Carolina.

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Gen Ned Simms
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Blood 'n Guts hisself, a land lovin' pirate. Show me some arty tubes and we'll charge 'em.
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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865
PostPosted: Mon Apr 13, 2015 4:08 pm 
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April 14, 1865 Friday
The event of Good Friday, April 14, 1865 will remain vivid as long as the history of the United States is known. Shortly after 10 PM in the presidential box at Ford’s Theatre President Abraham Lincoln was shot by actor John Wilkes Booth. It had been a full day for Lincoln, with many callers and a Cabinet meeting, with Gen Grant in attendance, during which the President told of his recurring dream of a ship “moving with great rapidity toward a dark and indefinite shore.” The Cabinet discussed problems of reconstruction, including treatment of Confederate leaders. Callers continued in the afternoon and up to 8:30 PM, the time Lincoln left for the theater to see a trifling comedy, Our American Cousin. Gen Grant had turned down an invitation to attend, pleading he had to visit his children. It was known that there was some chilliness between Mrs Lincoln and Mrs Grant.

At the theater the crowd’s cheering stopped the play as the President and his party, including Mrs Lincoln, Miss Clara Harris, and Maj H.R. Rathbone, entered the box over the stage. The crowd settled down and the play resumed. One lady reported, “It was while every one’s attention was fastened upon the stage that a pistol shot was heard, causing every one to jump & look up at the President’s Box merely because that was the direction of the sound and supposing it to be a part of the performance we all looked again upon the stage – when a man suddenly vaulted over the railing of the box – turned back & then leaped to the stage – striking on his heels & falling backward but recovered himself in an instant and started across the stage to behind the scene.” John Wilkes Booth brandished a knife and shouted what was said to be “Sic semper tyrannis” as he hobbled across the stage and out into the night, his right leg injured when he leaped to the stage. “Our President! Our President is shot! Catch him – hang him!”

Bedlam reigned at the theater as men carried the unconscious President across the street to the modest home of William Peterson. There he was put in a rear bedroom. A bullet had gone into the back of the head and lodged near the right eye. Soon the building and streets were full. Medical men, Cabinet members, and congressmen hastened to the Peterson House. Rumors were rife: it was a Confederate raid – murderers were rushing about the streets – many prominent politicians were also assassinated. Truth soon came out that Sec of State William H. Seward had been stabbed in his bed, where he was recovering from his carriage accident. Only the plaster cast and the courageous action of his son and a male nurse saved the Secretary. It was learned that Lewis Payne (or Paine), a hulking accomplice of Booth, had carried out the Seward stabbing. At the Kirkwood House, Vice-President Andrew Johnson was notified of the attacks. The streets of Washington, still wearing a jubilant air from the recent surrender of Appomattox, now suffered the sudden shock of tragedy. Stunned citizens and troops thronged the avenues. Sec of War Stanton took charge of the pursuit of Booth and his accomplices as the telegraph wires hummed the awesome news to the nation. Grant was at Baltimore when informed of the tragedy, and he immediately returned to Washington. At the Peterson House, doctors pronounced no hope for the dying President. Mrs Lincoln came into the room once and was led away in irrespressible grief.

Earlier in the day, at Charleston Harbor, distinguished Northern officers and dignitaries gathered, bands played, and guns thundered from the Northern Navy in salute. In late morning at Fort Sumter, a flag-raising program began. Gen Robert Anderson, who had lowered the same flag four years earlier, seized the halyards and hoisted the Federal banner once more above the fort that was the very symbol of the war. Henry Ward Beecher gave the oration. For the North it was an occasion of solemn joy ending with fireworks from the fleet at night.

Sherman’s forces moved ahead in the rain from Raleigh to Durham Station, North Carolina. After obtaining permission from President Davis, Gen Johnston wrote to Sherman asking if he was “willing to make a temporary suspension of active operations,” looking toward peace. Sherman, in Raleigh, replied at once that he was willing to confer with Johnston and would limit his advance, expecting Johnston to keep his men in their present position. He suggested the same terms Grant had given Lee. There was some fighting near Morrisville and Sander’s Farm, North Carolina. Near Tuskegee, Alabama Wilson’s cavalry skirmished on the Columbus Road. Another skirmish flared at Mount Pleasant, Tennessee. C.S.S. Shenandoah left the Eastern Caroline Islands in the Pacific and headed for the Kurile Islands in the North Pacific. Still another Union vessel was blown up by a torpedo off Mobile.

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Gen Ned Simms
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Blood 'n Guts hisself, a land lovin' pirate. Show me some arty tubes and we'll charge 'em.
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 Post subject: Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1865
PostPosted: Tue Apr 14, 2015 3:39 pm 
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April 15, 1865 Saturday
At 7:22 AM President Abraham Lincoln died. “Now he belongs to the ages,” Sec of War Stanton is supposed to have intoned to those gathered around the bed in the Peterson house. The Cabinet, except for the injured Seward, formally requested Vice-President Andrew Johnson to assume the office of President. At 11 AM, at the Kirkwood Hotel, Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase administered the oath in the presence of the Cabinet and several congressmen. Mr Johnson asked the Cabinet to remain with him, adding, “The course which I have taken in the past, in connection with this rebellion, must be regarded as a guaranty for the future.” The nation still had a leader, the process of government went on, the search for the assassins was in full, if somewhat confused, cry. Much of the nation wept openly as the news went out.

Skirmishing broke out near Chapel Hill, North Carolina and at McKenzie’s Creek near Patterson, Missouri. Union scouts operated in Randolph and Pocahontas counties, West Virginia; and Bath and Highland, Virginia until April 23. George Armstrong Custer, USA, is appointed to Major General.

President Davis, having authorized negotiations by Gen Johnston, now left Greensborough, North Carolina with a cavalry escort. Some officials were on horseback and some in carriages or wagons.

Fugitives John Wilkes Booth ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wilkes_Booth ) and David Herold ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Herold ), one of Booth’s accomplices, had escaped to the southeast of Washington and stopped at the home of Dr Samuel Mudd ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Mudd ), where Booth’s broken leg was treated.

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Gen Ned Simms
1/1/XIV Corps/AotC
Blood 'n Guts hisself, a land lovin' pirate. Show me some arty tubes and we'll charge 'em.
VMI Class of '00


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