Fox's Regimental Losses
List Of Regiments And Batteries In The Union Armies With Mortuary Losses Of Each
The Number Killed And Number Of Deaths From Disease Or Other Causes
ANOTHER interesting chapter in this story of loyalty may be found in the statistics showing the total number of deaths in each organization from the Northern States that served in the War for the Union. The deaths incurred in battle are tabulated here separately from those induced by other causes, and the loss in officers is also given by itself.
These figures are based on the records of the muster-out rolls on file in the Military Bureaus of the various States, and have been revised by a careful comparison with the records of the War Department at Washington. They have also been tested by the casualty lists of the various battles, as published in the Official Records of the Rebellion, or awaiting publication. The figures are believed to be correct; and, beyond the possible change of an unit or so, will admit of no variation.
In footing up the regimental losses of any State, a seeming discrepancy may arise between the total result and the figures of the War Department which are given elsewhere in these pages. This difference in the total losses of a State may be due to the following reasons: some soldiers who were borne on the muster-out rolls as "wounded and missing in action" are included in these regimental tables with the killed; while in the official statistics of the War Department none are counted as killed unless definite information through official sources has been received to that effect. For this reason the total of killed in any State, as tabulated here by regiments, may exceed somewhat the figures of the War Department.
On the other hand, the footings of the regimental losses from disease and other causes may, in some States, fall somewhat below the figures of the Adjutant General's office at Washington. This difference is due largely to deaths among the "unassigned recruits," who are omitted in these regimental tables. These unassigned recruits were seldom borne on the regimental rolls; they never reported to the regiments for duty; and most of the deaths among them occurred at the North while in recruiting barracks or camps of instruction. Hence, the deaths in this class are not considered in connection with the matter of regimental losses, although they enter properly into the State totals.
Some minor organizations, in which deaths from disease occurred, are also omitted, companies or small battalions which never left their State, or were organized in 1865, at the close of the war.
For these reasons the State totals are not given, except in the official table issued by the Adjutant-General of the War Department at Washington, and which is reprinted elsewhere in these pages for that purpose.
With each regiment is given the division and corps in which it served. In some cases a regiment served in different divisions, and, sometimes, in more than one corps; but the division and corps designated here are not intended to cover the history of a regiment, but rather to suggest something which will assist the reader in identifying the battalion and the 30 campaigns in which it served. Without this mention of some one division or corps, the figures would, too often, remain meaningless and useless.
In designating the division, the name of its general is used in preference to its numerical title. The soldiers were wont to so designate their commands, while historians invariably allude to a division by its commander's name. As many of the divisions served under different generals, and were known successively by these commanders' names, it becomes difficult at times to select the name which might most properly designate the command. In some cases the doubt was decided by using the name of the general under whom the regiment served longest.
Still, to do all this accurately would necessitate a knowledge of the corps histories which few, if any, possess. It is hoped, however, that the name of the division will in each case assist in some degree to identify the regiment, to recall its history, and to throw some light upon the nature of its losses, -- even though the name selected may not be the one best adapted to the purpose.
In giving the date of organization, the day of the month has been omitted, as in many commands the companies were mustered in at various dates; and, in each case, a large part of the men had enlisted and were in barracks a considerable time before the regiment effected its complete organization and muster-in as a regiment. In some regiments there were men who had enlisted several weeks, often months, before their regiment was organized. On the other hand, some of the regiments raised under the second call (1862) organized and left for the front within thirty days after the first man signed the roll.
The total enrollments are omitted for lack of space; but the number enrolled in three hundred of these regiments, the leading ones in point of loss, will be found in the various pages of Chapter X. The other regiments numbered about one thousand men each when organized, and received, on an average, 300 recruits. Some of them took the field with only 800 men or thereabouts, and received but few recruits, while some others carried 1,800 on their rolls.
Where the number enrolled is not otherwise stated, the average infantry regiment may be considered as numbering 1,300, original members and recruits. The cavalry regiments carried 1,800 men on their rolls as an average, and the heavy artillery commands about 2,200. In the light batteries (six-gun batteries), 250 was a common enrollment.
By noting these facts the regimental losses in killed will be better understood, and an approximate idea of the percentage of loss will be obtained.
These figures are far above the plane of ordinary statistics. They represent the measure of blood which an unflinching patriotism gave in exchange for the perpetuity of the Nation and the ransom of the Republic.
NOTE.-Many of the regiments marked in the following tables as having "reŽnlisted and served through the war," preserved their organization by reason of a large number of recruits (who had unexpired terms to serve), rather than by the number of veterans who reŽn-listed. Some of the three-years' regiments whose term expired in 1864, and were discharged and discontinued, contained in their ranks more reŽnlisted veterans than some commands which served through the war.
Maine Regiments. -- The First Cavalry sustained the greatest loss in battle of any cavalry regiment in the army; and the First Heavy Artillery the greatest loss of any regimental organization in any arm of the service. The First Infantry was a three-months regiment, which was mustered in May 3, 1861. It left the State June 1, and was mustered out August 5, 1861. No deaths occurred in its ranks, and it is omitted in the preceding table. The First Veteran Infantry was organized in the field, at Charlestown, W. Va., on the 21st of August, 1864, and was composed of the reŽnlisted veterans and recruits with unexpired terms, which were left at the front by the 5th, 6th, and 7th Infantry when those regiments went home, at the expiration of their term of enlistment.
The 2d and 10th Infantry were enlisted for two years, and were mustered out in May, 1863, just after Chancellorsville which was their last battle. The 18th Infantry became the 1st Heavy Artillery, leaving that infantry number vacant.
The regiments, 16th to 20th inclusive, were organized under the second call for troops-- the call of July 2, 1862, for 300,000 more; the regiments 21st to 28th, inclusive, were organized in response to the call of August 4, 1862, for 300,000 men for nine months' service. The remaining regiments went out in response to the different calls for three-years men.
The greatest mortality from disease in any regiment from the State occurred in the 15th regiment, and was undoubtedly due to the climate of the Gulf and Lower Mississippi, in which locality the regiment was stationed during much of its service. It was mustered out at Charleston, S.C., July 5, 1866, having served the longest of any regiment from the State.
New Hampshire --The 5th sustained the greatest loss in battle of any infantry regiment in the war. The 1st Infantry was a three-months' regiment, which was organized April 26, 1861, and left the State May 25. It served under General Patterson in the Shenandoah, and was mustered out on the 9th of August. The 15th and 16th Infantry enlisted for nine months; the other regiments enlisted for three years. The 3d, 4th, 6th, 7th, and 8th Infantry re-enlisted for another term; the 2d and 5th were filled up with recruits, which, with their reŽnlisted men, preserved their organizations, also, through the war. The 17th regiment failed to effect an organization, and the two companies which were recruited for it were transferred to the 2d regiment. The large number of deaths from disease in the 8th Infantry was due to the fatal climate of the Gulf States in which it served. Its loss in battle occurred entirely in the battles of the Lower Mississippi and Red River campaigns. The deaths from disease in the 16th Infantry occurred while in the Department of the Gulf, and within nine months, the regiment having enlisted for that term. The entire loss in action of the 14th Infantry occurred in the Shenandoah Valley, in the two battles of the Opequon and Cedar Creek, 59 falling, killed or mortally wounded, at the Opequon.
Vermont.--The percentage of killed in the quota furnished by Vermont is far above the average, and is exceeded by only one other state. Its large per centage is easily understood by a glance at the battle losses of its regiments. The "Old" Vermont Brigade, composed of the 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, and 6th Infantry, and the 1st Heavy Artillery, lost more men killed in action than any other brigade in the army. The Second Vermont Brigade, composed of the 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th Infantry, was enlisted for nine months, and was present at Gettysburg, where three of the regiments, under command of General Stannard, took a conspicuous part in the repulse of Pickett's charge.
The 1st Infantry was a three-months regiment. It was organized at Rutland, May 9, 1861, and fought at Big Bethel. The other regiments enlisted for three years, and the 1st Cavalry, the 2d Battery, and the 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th Infantry reŽnlisted, and served through the war. The 1lth Infantry was changed to the 1st Heavy Artillery, leaving that number in the line vacant.
Massachusetts.-- The 14th Infantry was changed to the 1 st Heavy Artillery; and the 4 1 st Infantry to the 3d Cavalry--leaving their original numbers vacant. The 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 8th Infantry served first as three-months' regiments, having volunteered in April, 1861, at the outbreak of the war. The 6th became famous by reason of its fight in the streets of Baltimore. The 4th fought at Big Bethel, and the 5th was hotly engaged at First Bull Run. These regiments belonged to the State Militia, and volunteered a second time, under the President's call of August 4, 1862, for 300,000 militia for nine months' service. The 5th, 6th and 8th volunteered for the third time, in 1864, for one hundred days, and were stationed at Baltimore. In addition to the organizations in the above tabulation, the State accepted, in 1864, some separate unattached companies, 24 in number, which were sworn in for one hundred days' service. Some of these companies reŽnlisted for one year, and were organized as the 4th Heavy Artillery. The 2d Heavy Artillery lost two companies at the capture of Plymouth, N. C.; they numbered about 275 men, of whom 173 died while in the hands of the enemy. The deaths in the 39th include 102 which occurred in Confederate prisons, this regiment having lost 246 men captured in the battle at the Weldon Railroad. The loss by disease in the 30th Infantry was caused by the climate of the Lower Mississippi, where it was stationed for over two years. The 5th Battery--Phillips's--sustained the greatest percentage of loss (in battle) of any light battery in the volunteer service.
The 13th Massachusetts has a meritorious record in its small number of deaths from disease, its percentage of deaths from that cause being the smallest of any three-years regiment in the entire army. There were regiments with a smaller number of deaths from disease; but they were two-years regiments, or carried a less number of names on their rolls. The extraordinary exemption from disease in the 13th Infantry would indicate that the regiment was composed of superior material.
Rhode Island.--The Rhode Island troops became prominent by reason of the fine regiment of light artillery furnished by that State. The light batteries of this command were remarkable for their efficiency, and the conspicuous part assigned them in all the battles of the Army of the Potomac. As a whole they were unsurpassed, and they made a record which reflected credit on their State. A comparison of their losses in action with those of other batteries tells plainly the story of the dangers which they braved. The 1st Infantry was a three-months regiment which was actively engaged at First Bull Run. The 6th and 8th Infantry failed to complete their organizations, The 1st Cavalry contained a battalion of four companies from New Hampshire, which was detached January 7, 1864, and placed in the 1st New Hampshire Cavalry. The 2d Rhode Island Cavalry was organized with eight companies only, and in July, 1863, they were consolidated into a battalion of four companies, and transferred to the 1st Louisiana (Union) Cavalry. The men objected to this transfer, and would not leave camp for their new quarters until surrounded by the Louisiana Cavalry, and forced to go. Two men who were conspicuously reluctant were led out by their new comrades and shot in front of the regiment, without a trial. After serving over a year in the Louisiana regiment, the battalion was re-transferred to the 3d Rhode Island Cavalry.
Connecticut.-- The 1st Heavy Artillery is noteworthy as having served in the field through the war, and in the arm of service to which it belonged. Very few of the other heavy artillery regiments in the army saw any service aside from garrison-duty, except while acting as infantry. The 1st Connecticut Heavy Artillery was organized as the 4th Infantry, but was changed in January, 1862, to heavy artillery. It served as heavy artillery at the Siege of Yorktown, in 1862, and was prominently engaged during the Siege of Petersburg, the most of its losses in action occurring at the latter place. The 1st, 2d, and 3d Infantry were three-months' regiments which went out in April, 1861, in response to the first call for troops, and were in action at First Bull Run. The 4th and 19th Infantry became, respectively, the 1st and 2d Heavy Artillery, thereby leaving those regimental numbers vacant. In the 8th Infantry, five men were executed for desertion, an unusually large number for one regiment. The deaths in the 16th Regiment include 154 deaths in Confederate prisons, over 400 of this regiment having been captured at Plymouth, N.C. The great mortality in the 9th was largely due to its service in the district of the Lower Mississippi, 153 of the deaths-- or half of the number present for duty-- occurring in the summer and fall of 1862 while stationed in the vicinity of Baton Rouge, Vicksburg, and New Orleans.
New York.--The Empire State furnished the most men and sustained the heaviest loss of any State in the War. It sent 448,850 men to the Union Armies, of whom 19,085 were killed in battle, while 27,449 more lost their lives from other causes while in the service; a total of 46,534 deaths.
In addition to the number of men furnished, as just stated, New York sent 17,000 militia to the field for thirty days, which were not credited on the required quota. The National Guard of New York took a prominent and meritorious part in the war. In various emergencies it hastened to the front with a promptness that was surprising. Many of these militia regiments-- notably those from the city of New York --were well drilled, perfectly equipped, and rendered valuable service-- not only in guarding the lines of communication, but on the battlefield itself. At First Bull Run the three-months men of the New York State National Guard--the 8th, 69th, and 71st Regiments--fought with a gallantry unsurpassed on' all that bloody field.
Nor was this all. Some of the National Guard regiments enlisted for three years, and taking the field promptly at the first call, gave the country the benefit of their previous drill and military experience. In this meritorious class were the :/d Regiment Militia, or 82d Volunteers; the 9th Militia, or 83d Volunteers; the 14th Brooklyn, or 84th Volunteers; the 20th Militia (Ulster Guard), or the 80th Volunteers; and the 79th "Highlanders."
In addition to the organizations which appear in the above tabulations, New York furnished the Army with 17 regiments of militia for thirty days' service; 16 regiments for ninety days; and 11 regiments for one hundred days. Some of these, like the 7th Regiment, responded to the call in three different emergencies, and served three separate enlistments.
Of these troops, the Seventh Regiment, National Guard -- or 7th Militia, as it was called -- was particularly conspicuous by the surprising celerity with which it went to the front in time of need; by its superior drill and equipment; and by the high standard of personal character which marked its rank and file. When the war broke out it was among the very first to take the field, leaving New York on the 19th of April, with 991 officers and men, and by its timely arrival at Washington contributed largely to the relief of the threatened Capital. This, its first enlistment, was for thirty days. It volunteered again in May, 1862, for three months; and, again, in June, 1863, for one month.
But the Seventh rendered a far greater and more valuable service to the country by the large number of efficient and well-drilled soldiers, which went from its ranks to accept commissions in the new volunteer regiments. The volunteers were lacking in drill and military experience; the proficiency of the Seventh was well known, and membership in its ranks was a guarantee of character. Hence the volunteer service made such demands on it for officers that 603 men of this regiment were commissioned in other commands during the war. It was the West Point of the New York volunteer service. The Seventh has no casualty list of its own, but of the officers which graduated from its ranks, 41 were killed in battle, and 17 died of disease while in the service.
The first infantry regiments organized in the State-- aside from the three-months men who volunteered so promptly in April, 1861 -- were enlisted for two years' service. All the infantry from the 1st to the 38th regiments, inclusive, were in this class, and were mustered out in May, 1863. Hence, the losses in these regiments were smaller than in those which were recruited for a three-years term, or those which, having served their three years, reŽnlisted for another term and served through the war.
And, yet, there were no better regiments in the war, taken as a whole, than these two-year regiments from New York. They were composed of young men who volunteered promptly at the first alarm of the war; whose incentive was a true patriotism, combined with military ardor and that love of adventure which helps so much to make the daring and gallant soldier. There were no conscripts or mercenaries in their number; the ranks of each regiment were recruited from that grandest type of manhood--the American Volunteers.
It should be remembered that, although these two-year regiments were organized early in 1861, the Army did not take the field until the spring of 1862 .; and that when the fighting did commence, they had only a year to serve, which accounts for their comparatively small loss in action. Some of them, however--the 12th, 13th, 18th, 11th (Fire Zouaves), and 38th --were engaged at First Bull Run.
Prominent among these two-year regiments was the 10th New York (National Zouaves), raised in New York City, which, by recruiting and reŽnlistments, preserved its organization through the war. In April, 1863, the two-years men in the regiment were mustered out, and the three-years men were formed into a battalion of four companies, under Major Hopper, which remained in the field. During the first half of its service the Tenth was brigaded with the famous Duryee Zouaves, and was attached to Sykes's Division of regulars. Although serving in company with the finest regiments in the Army, its discipline and efficiency was such that it lost nothing by any comparison with the other magnificent troops of that division. In September, 1862, it was transferred to the Second Corps, in which it afterwards remained. The service of the Tenth was a long and varied one; it was among the first to enlist, and it remained in the field until the last shot had been fired.
An interesting episode in the history of the Tenth was the organization of a working lodge of Master Masons in the regiment-- the National Zouave Lodge (U. D.)-- which found lodge-room in a casemate at Fort Monroe. These communications were attended, also, by brethren from neighboring camps; thirty-four members were entered, passed, and raised; and, frequently, gray-clad soldiers of the Southern Army--prisoners within the lines-- found their way to the spot and sat in lodge with their more fortunate brethren.
The 3d Infantry, though a two-years' regiment, also preserved its organization after its term expired, and served through the war. The 12th Infantry had enough three-years men among its recruits to organize a battalion after the regiment went home, and this battalion remained in the field until June, 1864, when it was transferred to the 5th Veteran Infantry. After the 5th, 7th, and 17th Regiments had returned to New York at the expiration of their two years' term, and had been mustered out, other regiments bearing these numbers were organized from the disbanded veterans of the first thirty-eight infantry regiments, the 17th returning to the field with many who had served in the old organization.
The 1st Veteran Cavalry was composed mostly of men who served in the two-years' infantry, and was recruited largely from the veterans of the 27th and 33d regiments. The 2d Veteran Cavalry contained many of the veterans of the 30th Infantry.
Attention is called to the large number of killed in the 7th, 19th, 26th, and 34th Infantry during their last year of service. The 7th lost 243 killed and wounded, at Fredericksburg, out of 488 engaged; the 16th lost 201 at Gaines's Mill; the 26th lost 339 in the two actions of Manassas and Fredericksburg, and the 34th lost 251 at Fair Oaks and Antietam.
The 24th Cavalry and 2d Mounted Rifles served dismounted--in the Ninth Corps--until November, 1864, most of their casualties in battle occurring while dismounted and serving as infantry.
The 85th New York lost 222 men who died in Confederate prisons, the regiment having been captured at Plymouth. N. C., April 20, 1864. The loss by disease, accidents, etc., in the 132d New York includes 31 men who were killed at Bachelor's Creek, N. C., May 26, 1864, by an accidental explosion of torpedoes.
The 107th New York was the first regiment from the North to organize under the second call and the first to arrive at Washington, in acknowledgment of which it received a banner from the State, and on its arrival at Washington was greeted by a personal visit from the President. It was a fine regiment, and though its casualties were not among the largest, it made a splendid record for discipline and efficiency.
The 77th New York was also a fighting regiment, and sustained a loss in officers above that of the average. The loss of officers in its brigade (7th Me., 43d N.Y., 49th N.Y., 77th N.Y., and 61st Pa.) was without a parallel in the war, the five regiments losing 72 officers killed in action.
The 144th sustained its loss in killed in the battles along the South Carolina coast,--at John's Island, James Island, Siege of Wagner, Deveaux Neck, and Honey Hill, half of its loss occurring in the latter battle. The 141st New York encountered its hardest fighting and severest losses at Resaca and Peach Tree Creek. The following regiments failed to complete their organizations, and their numbers are accordingly vacant: the 17th Cavalry; 11th and 12th Heavy Artillery; 166th, 167th, 171st, 172d, 180th, 181st, and 183d Infantry.
Missing numbers in the line were also caused by transfers of regiments to a different arm of service; the 7th Cavalry became the 1st Mounted Rifles; the 15th and 50th Regiments served as Engineers; the 19th Infantry was changed to the 3d Artillery; the 113th to the 7th Heavy Artillery; the 129th to the 8th Heavy Artillery; the 130th to the 19th Cavalry (1st Dragoons); the 135th to the 6th Heavy Artillery; and the 138th to the 9th Heavy Artillery. The 22d Light Battery, which was organized in October, 1862, was transferred soon after to the 9th Artillery.
For various reasons some of the regiments were discontinued or disbanded before completing their term of enlistment: the 7th Cavalry, organized in October, 1861, was discontinued after six months; the 1st Marine Artillery was mustered out in March. 1863; the 1lth Infantry (Fire Zouaves) was disbanded in May, 1862; the 53d was discontinued in March, 1862; the 55th was transferred to the 38th in December, 1862; the 87th was transferred to the 40th in September, 1862; the 101st was transferred to the 37th in December, 1862; the 145th was disbanded December 9, 1863, and distributed to the 107th, 123d, and 150th Regiments; and the 163d was transferred to the 73d on January 20, 1863. The 190th and 191st were small battalions which did not leave the State, the war ending soon after their organization was commenced.
New Jersey.--The record of the Jerseymen in the war shows that they were true to the patriotic memories of Princeton and Monmouth. The Jersey troops became conspicuous early in the war by reason of the First and Second Jersey Brigades; in fact, any history of the Army of the Potomac would be incomplete and deficient were it without frequent mention of those gallant commands. The First Jersey Brigade, proper, consisted of the 1st, 2d, 3d, and 4th New Jersey, to which the 15th was added in 1862; the 10th, 23d, and 40th were also attached at various times. It was commanded successively by Generals Kearny, Taylor, Torbert, Colonel Brown (3d N. J.), and General Penrose. General Taylor was killed at Bull Run Bridge, while in command of the brigade.
The Second Jersey Brigade was composed originally of the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th Regiments, to which the 11th was subsequently added. Other regiments were attached to the brigade at different times.
The Ninth New Jersey was a regiment which reflected credit on its State, and made a brilliant reputation in the Department in which it served. It fought in the battles along the North Carolina coast, and in 1864 was attached to the Army of the James. Its principal losses occurred at Roanoke Island, New Berne, Port Walthall, Drewry's Bluff, Cold Harbor, and Petersburg.
The Thirteenth New Jersey is noteworthy on account of the remarkably small number of deaths from disease which occurred within its ranks. The regiments which marched by its side sustained far greater losses from this cause. And the Thirteenth saw an unusual amount of active service, too. It had not left the State two weeks before it joined McClellan's Army on the Maryland campaign, and was hotly engaged at Antietam. It fought through the Atlanta campaign, marched through Georgia to the Sea, and then fought under Sherman in the Carolinas. In the latter campaign official acknowledgement was made of the signal and valuable service rendered by the Thirteenth at the battle of Bentonville. The extraordinary exemption of this regiment from disease was undoubtedly due to the superior material in its ranks; the men were a clean, healthy, intelligent lot, and represented the best element in the Volunteer service. A small loss by disease is a creditable feature in the record of a regiment, as well as a large loss in action.
The nine-months' men from this State also made a good record during the short time they were in service. At Fredericksburg the 24th New Jersey lost 136 in killed and wounded; and the 28th New Jersey lost 193 on that bloody field. The vacant numbers in the New Jersey line occurred through the following reasons: the 16th regiment became the 1st Cavalry; the 32d the 2d Cavalry; and the 36th the 3d Cavalry; the 17th, 18th, 19th, and 20th regiments failed to complete their organizations.
Pennsylvania.--The percentage of killed in the soldiers of the Keystone State, as based upon the white troops, is greater than in the quota of any other Northern State. This high percentage of loss in battle was largely due to the fact that nearly all the Pennsylvania troops served in Virginia, where the territory was better contested and the war more prolonged. Then, again, the Pennsylvania regiments were second to none. The cavalry of the State were, as a whole, unsurpassed; they saw plenty of hard fighting, and their total losses in action exceed the cavalry losses of any other State.
A peculiarity in the numerical designations of the Pennsylvania regiments was the consecutive numbering, irrespective of the arm of the service to which they belonged. The volunteer regiments, as fast as they were organized, were numbered as volunteers; but at the same time some of them were given other numbers, pertaining to their arm of the service. The infantry regiments bore numerical designations identical with their volunteer numbers; but the cavalry and artillery were numbered as such, their titles being synonymous with their numbers in the volunteer line. The cavalry and artillery were never known by their volunteer numbers; hence, the apparent vacancies and lack of consecutive numbers in the list of Pennsylvania regiments. This consecutive numbering-- including, as it did, all arms of the service-- had the effect of running the numbers of the last infantry regiments beyond those furnished by any other State, and creating an impression that Pennsylvania furnished more regiments than any other. No number was repeated in the Pennsylvania line, while in other States the numerical designations of the regiments were repeated by each arm of the service.
The regimental numbers apparently vacant, with their synonymous designations, were:
Volunteer Number Synonym 30th Penn Volunteers 1st Penn Reserves 31st Penn Volunteers 2d Penn Reserves 32d Penn Volunteers 3d Penn Reserves 33d Penn Volunteers 4th Penn Reserves 34th Penn Volunteers 5th Penn Reserves 35th Penn Volunteers 6th Penn Reserves 36th Penn Volunteers 7th Penn Reserves 37th Penn Volunteers 8th Penn Reserves 38th Penn Volunteers 9th Penn Reserves 39th Penn Volunteers 10th Penn Reserves 40th Penn Volunteers 11th Penn Reserves 41st Penn Volunteers 12th Penn Reserves 42d Penn Volunteers 13th Penn Reserves 43d Penn Volunteers 1st Penn Artillery 44th Penn Volunteers 1st Penn Cavalry 59th Penn Volunteers 2d Penn Cavalry 60th Penn Volunteers 3d Penn Cavalry 64th Penn Volunteers 4th Penn Cavalry 65th Penn Volunteers 5th Penn Cavalry 70th Penn Volunteers 6th Penn Cavalry 80th Penn Volunteers 7th Penn Cavalry 89th Penn Volunteers 8th Penn Cavalry 92d Penn Volunteers 9th Penn Cavalry 108th Penn Volunteers 11th Penn Cavalry 112th Penn Volunteers 2d Penn Artillery 113th Penn Volunteers 12th Penn Cavalry 117th Penn Volunteers 13th Penn Cavalry 152d Penn Volunteers 3d Penn Artillery 159th Penn Volunteers 14th Penn Cavalry 160th Penn Volunteers 15th Penn Cavalry 161st Penn Volunteers 16th Penn Cavalry 162d Penn Volunteers 17th Penn Cavalry 163d Penn Volunteers 18th Penn Cavalry 180th Penn Volunteers 19th Penn Cavalry 181st Penn Volunteers 20th Penn Cavalry 182d Penn Volunteers 21st Penn Cavalry 185th Penn Volunteers 22d Penn Cavalry 204th Penn Volunteers 5th Penn Artillery 212th Penn Volunteers 6th Penn Artillery
Vacant numbers were also caused by the failure of the following regiments to complete their organizations: the 10th Cavalry; 4th Artillery; 86th, 94th, 120th, 144th, 146th, 156th, 164th, 170th, and 189th Infantry. The 66th Regiment, after serving about seven months, was disbanded and transferred to the 73d and 99th Regiments.
The first twenty-five regiments of volunteers from this State served in 1861, at the commencement of the war, but were enlisted for three months only; these regiments are omitted in the above tabulation, except the 11th and 23d Regiments, which reŽnlisted for three years and retained their original designation.
In addition to these twenty-five volunteer regiments of three-months men, Pennsylvania sent to the Army, in 1863, 34 regiments of militia for ninety days' service; also, about 5,000 more emergency-men in separate companies or battalions. Two of these companies served three years, and five of them nine months.
The deaths in the first twenty-five volunteer regiments, and in the thirty-four militia regiments, in 1863, and in the miscellaneous companies, and in all other commands omitted in the above tabulated list of Pennsylvania organizations,-- aggregated 112 from disease and 2 killed in action.
Five companies of Pennsylvania Militia were the first volunteer troops of the war that arrived at Washington, they having marched promptly to the defense of the National Capital at the first note of alarm. These companies were the Ringgold Light Artillery, of Reading; the Logan Guards, of Lewistown; the Washington Artillery and National Light Infantry, of Pottsville; and the Allen Rifles, of Allentown. They entered the city at 7 r. M., on the 18th of April. On the following day, the 26th Pennsylvania and the 6th Massachusetts arrived at Baltimore en-route for the Capital, and in the fight with the mob in the streets of that city the 26th Pennsylvania lost one man killed and several wounded.
The nine-months regiments from Pennsylvania furnished some noteworthy items to the casualty lists of the war. For instance:
REGIMENT BATTLE Killed and
125th Pennsylvania Antietam 145 130th Pennsylvania Antietam 178 131st Pennsylvania Fredericksburg 175 132d Pennsylvania Antietam 152 133d Pennsylvania Fredericksburg 184 134th Pennsylvania Fredericksburg 148 151st Pennsylvania Gettysburg 233 203d Pennsylvania Fort Fisher 191
The greatest battle of the war was fought on the soil of Pennsylvania, and by a well-ordered fortune the first volley to greet the invading foe flashed from the rifles of a Pennsylvania regiment. To the 56th Pennsylvania Infantry, Colonel J. W. Hofman commanding, belongs the historic honor of firing the first volley on that field. The skirmishers of Buford's Cavalry were earlier on the field, but were only holding the ground until the infantry columns could arrive and open the battle. Cutler's brigade was the first infantry to arrive, and General Cutler states officially that the 56th was the first regiment of his brigade to open fire.
Delaware.--Though one of the smallest States in the Union, Delaware furnished more men and money, in proportion to its military population, than any other State.
The 1st Delaware Cavalry was not a full regiment, but a battalion of seven companies, and in 1864 it served, dismounted, in the Sixth Corps. The Delaware Heavy Artillery consisted of one company only -- Ahl's Independent Company. The State furnished, also, an infantry company--Stirling's-- which enlisted in August, 1864, for one year; and a company of cavalry--Milligan's--which enlisted in July, 1864, for thirty days.
Maryland.--Over 40,000 Marylanders followed the "old line bugle, fife, and drum" into the Union ranks. Including colored troops, the State furnished 46,638 men for the Union Armies, and paid commutation for 3,678 more,--a total of 56,316.
The Maryland Brigade belonged to the Second Division, Fifth Corps, and was composed of the 1st, 4th, 7th, and 8th Maryland Infantry, together with the infantry command known as the Purnell (Md.) Legion. The latter organization had served previously in the Twelfth Corps; and the brigade, itself, before joining the Fifth Corps, had served in the Eighth, and also in the First Corps. The 6th Maryland had also served in this brigade for a few months. The principal losses of the Maryland Brigade occurred while on Grant's Virginia campaigns of 1864-65, during which it particularly distinguished itself, taking an active part in all the battles of the Fifth Corps. Colonel Dushane (1st Md.), the commander of the brigade, was killed at the battle of the Weldon Railroad, August 19, 1864.
Different regiments bearing the same number appear in the Maryland line, owing to the 1st and 2d Maryland Eastern Shore; and the 1st, 2d, and 3d Maryland, Potomac Home Brigade. The designation of the 1st Maryland, Potomac Home Brigade (Infantry), was changed to 13th Maryland Infantry, April 8, 1865. There was a cavalry regiment, also, known as the 1st Maryland, Potomac Home Brigade. The 1st Maryland Infantry, Potomac Home Brigade, was attached to the Twelfth Corps in 1863, and was hotly engaged at Gettysburg, where it fought with the 1st Maryland, C. S. A.
West Virginia.-- The 9th West Virginia Infantry, composed largely of refugees, was prominently engaged at Cloyd's Mountain, where it led a successful assault, but with a loss of 45 killed and 144 wounded. In this action its color-guard entered the enemy's works in advance of the line, every one of them falling, killed or wounded; and, after the fight, twenty-one men lay dead around the flags, twelve of whom were Confederates.
The 2d West Virginia Infantry was changed to mounted infantry in June, 1863, and in January, 1864, to the 5th West Virginia Cavalry. The 3d Infantry was changed to mounted infantry in November, 1863, and to the 6th Cavalry in January, 1864. The 8th Infantry was changed to the 7th Cavalry in January, 1864. The 1st Veteran Infantry was formed, November 9, 1864, by consolidating the reŽnlisted veterans and recruits with unexpired terms belonging to the 5th and 9th Infantry; and the 2d Veteran Infantry was formed, December 21, 1864, by consolidating the veterans and recruits of the 1st and 4th Infantry. The 4th West Virginia Infantry served, also, in Blair's Division of the Fifteenth Corps, and in the assault on Vicksburg--May 19th and 22d --lost 156 in killed and wounded.
Ohio.-- The quota due from the State of Ohio, under the various calls for troops, was 306,322 men. The quota was not only promptly filled, but several thousand additional troops were furnished. Ohio sent 313,180 men to the war, and paid commutation on 6,479 more; total, 319,659. But many of the regiments enlisted for a few months only, and, hence, the Ohio enlistments, when reduced to a three-years' standard, were equivalent to 240,514 men.
The Roll of Honor from the State includes 35,475 men who died in the service: of these, 11,588 fell in battle; 19,365 died of disease; 2,711 died while in the hands of the enemy; the remainder died from accidents, and various other causes, known and unknown.
Missing numbers occur in the list of Ohio regiments for the following reasons: the 44th Infantry was changed to the 8th Cavalry; the 109th Regiment failed to complete its organization, and the men were transferred to the 113th Ohio; the 112th, 119th, and 158th Regiments, also, failed to perfect their organizations, and their recruits were assigned to other regiments; the 13th Light Battery did not complete its organization; the 23d Battery was changed to Simmonds's Kentucky Battery, it having been formed by detaching Company E, 1st Kentucky Infantry ; the 117th Regiment was changed to the 1st Ohio Heavy Artillery; the 127th Ohio was a colored regiment whose designation was changed to the 5th United States Colored.
In addition to the regiments in the above tabulation, Ohio sent 23 regiments to the field in April, 1861, to serve three months. The most of these regiments, which volunteered for three months in 1861, reorganized immediately after their return and enlisted for three years, retaining their old volunteer numbers. While in the three-months' service these regiments were engaged in active and arduous campaigns, and did considerable fighting, the three-months' volunteers from Ohio taking the most prominent part in the successful campaign which wrested West Virginia from the Confederate grasp.
A noticeable feature of the Ohio troops was the State National Guard, which was organized in 1863, pursuant to an act of Legislature passed that year, to meet the obvious necessity for such a body of troops in protecting the State from invasions like that of the Morgan Raid, and in supplying the National Government with emergency-men when called for. The Ohio National Guard was well organized, uniformed, drilled, and completely equipped; and, in the spring of 1864, Ohio sent 36,254 of these troops-- 42 regiments -- to the field for 100 days. Part of them garrisoned the fortifications of Washington, and thus enabled the heavy artillery regiments hitherto employed on that duty to go to the front and reŽnforce General Grant. Part of the Ohio National Guard, also, went to the front, and one entire division of the Tenth Corps--General Orris S. Ferry's-- was composed of these regiments. On entering the United States service the National Guard regiments dropped their former numerical designations, and were numbered to conform to their place in the list of Ohio Volunteers.
In addition to the National Guard, the State organized and enrolled an efficient force of militia. In 1862, when Cincinnati was threatened by an invading army, 16,000 "Squirrel Hunters" marched to its defense.
The veterans of the Ohio volunteers reŽnlisted in large numbers; 20,708 of them remained in the field after their three years' enlistment had expired, and served through the rest of the war. It should be remembered that the volunteers who enlisted in 1862 were not eligible for the reŽnlistments just referred to; that only those who enlisted in 1861 could reŽnlist, and that, owing to the depletion of the regiments resulting from three years of fighting and hard service, these 20,708 reŽnlistments must have embraced a very large proportion of the volunteers of 1861, who were remaining in the field at the close of their three years' term.
The 66th Ohio was among the first to accept the proposal of the National Government for a reŽnlistment, and was the first Ohio regiment to return to the State on the thirty days' "veteran furlough" granted to all the "veteran volunteer" regiments. The largest number of reŽnlistments -- 534 -- occurred in the 39th Ohio, Colonel Edward F. Noyes. The next highest were:
Regiment Re-enlistments 63d Ohio 455 44th Ohio (8th Cavalry) 453 27th Ohio 437 43d Ohio 436 53d Ohio 380 17th Ohio 366 36th Ohio 364 38th Ohio 360 2d Ohio Cavalry 358 69th Ohio 348 14th Ohio 322 70th Ohio 332 74th Ohio 321 49th Ohio 314 71st Ohio 313
In some of these regiments nearly every effective man reŽnlisted, and these reŽnlistments, together with the recruits, enabled many of the veteran regiments to preserve their organizations through the war.
Of the distinguished generals in the Union Armies, a remarkably large number came from Ohio. Generals Sheridan, Rosecrans, Sherman, Griffin, Hunt, McPherson, Mitchel, Gillmore, McDowell, Custer, Weitzel, Kautz, William S. Smith, Crook, Stanley, Brooks, Leggett, the McCooks, Fuller, Steedman, Force, Banning, Ewing, Cox, Willich, Chas. R. Woods, Lytle, Garrard, Van Derveer, Beatty, Tyler, Harker, Opdycke, Carroll, and other noted officers, were born in Ohio, and appointed from that State, either to West Point or to some volunteer command. General McClellan's first service in the war was as the Major-General of the Ohio volunteers, and Generals Grant and Buell were born in the State.
The 102d Ohio lost 70 men killed by the explosion of the steamer Sultana, on the Mississippi River, April 27, 1865; and the 115th Ohio lost 83 killed in the same accident.
Ohio regiments had the honor of furnishing the twenty-two soldiers who captured a locomotive and made the famous railroad raid along the line of the Atlanta & Chattanooga Railroad, in April, 1862. It was a daring deed, and without an equal in its thrilling story of danger, intrepidity, heroic suffering, and death. The men who were detailed to carry out this wild romance were chosen from the 2d, 21st, and 33d Ohio Infantry.
The 2d Ohio Cavalry was the leading regiment, in point of loss, in the mounted service of the State. General Kautz was at one time Colonel of this regiment. Its service was a varied one, fighting in the Indian Territory, Arkansas, Missouri, and East Tennessee until April, 1864, when it joined the Army of the Potomac. Its fallen heroes, buried where they fell, form a vidette-line of patriot graves from the Missouri to the Chesapeake.
The 9th Ohio was composed of Germans, and was known as the First German or "Prussian" Regiment. At Chickamauga this regiment lost 48 killed, 185 wounded, and 16 missing; total, 249, out of about 500 engaged, and the heaviest loss but one of any regiment on the field. The 28th and 37th Ohio were also German Regiments.
At Chaplin Hills, six color-bearers of the Third Ohio were shot down in succession, but the flag was not allowed to touch the ground, so promptly did each successive hero grasp its falling staff.
The 22d Ohio was organized at St. Louis, and designated the 13th Missouri Volunteers; but as it was composed mainly of Ohio men, it was transferred, in 1862, to the Ohio line by order of the Secretary of War.
The 75th Ohio, Eleventh Corps, was transferred to South Carolina in 1863, and thence to Florida, where it served as mounted infantry. The 11th and 12th Ohio served, also, in the Kanawha Division of the Ninth Corps, and were engaged at South Mountain and Antietam.
Kentucky.-- Though a Border State and repeatedly overrun with contending armies, Kentucky furnished 79,025 men in defense of the Union. The State offered no bounties, nor did it enforce a draft; it appealed solely to the patriotism of its people, and its calls for volunteers were met by a loyal, prompt response.
It furnished 51,743 white troops, 314 sailors, 23,703 colored troops, and paid commutation for 3,265; in all, 79,025. Reduced to a basis of a three-years' enlistment, these troops were equal to 70,832 men. Over ten thousand loyal Kentuckians lost their lives while in the service; and, of the white troops, 2,478 were killed or mortally wounded in battle.
In addition to the volunteer regiments, the State organized 11 battalions (3,772 men) under sanction of the War Department at Washington, in July, 1863, which were known as the "Kentucky State Forces," and which served as "Home Guards." Sundry other militia organizations, numbering 8,704 men, were also called into service and assigned to similar duty. These troops-- 12,476 men--were not credited on the State's quota, although they rendered valuable service to the General Government in protecting the lines of communications, and in suppressing the guerrilla bands which terrorized the exposed portions of the State.
Among the general officers appointed from Kentucky were: Generals Anderson (of Fort Sumter fame), Rousseau, Thos. J. Wood, Crittenden, Johnson, Ward, Whitaker, Jackson (killed at Chaplin Hills), Fry, Burbridge, T.T. Garrard, Croxton, Long, Sanders (killed at Knoxville), Watkins, Shackleford, Nelson, Green Clay Smith, Hobson and others.
That the Kentucky regiments did their share of the fighting is well attested by the heroic figures opposite their names in the casualty lists of the Western armies.
REGIMENT BATTLE KILLED AND
3d Kentucky Stone's River 133 4th Kentucky Chickamauga 191 5th Kentucky Stone's River 125 5th Kentucky Chickamauga 125 6th Kentucky Shiloh 103 6th Kentucky Stone's River 113 6th Kentucky Chickamauga 118 8th Kentucky Stone's River 111 9th Kentucky Stone's River 112 10th Kentucky Chickamauga 166 1lth Kentucky Stone's River 102 15th Kentucky Chaplin Hills 196 17th Kentucky Fort Donelson 129 17th Kentucky Shiloh 122 17th Kentucky Chickamauga 126 18th Kentucky Richmond (Ky) 150
General McClernand officially congratulated the Governor of the State on the meritorious part taken by Kentucky in the Vicksburg campaign, and added his "testimony to the gallantry, bravery, and good conduct of her officers and men in all that bloody struggle. They bore themselves with the unflinching steadiness of veterans, both under galling fires of artillery and musketry, and in making charges upon fortified lines."
The losses in battle of the Kentucky regiments were more severe than the figures indicate, as the regiments were small. Nearly every regiment took the field before its ranks attained the maximum strength, and but few recruits were forwarded. The 60 regiments contained, in all, only 51,743 names on their rolls.
Vacant numbers occur in the list of Kentucky regiments through the following reasons: the 29th, 31st, 36th, 38th, 43d, 44th, 46th, 50th, and 51 st Regiments were incomplete organizations, and their recruits were transferred to other regiments. The 41st and 42d Regiments were thirty-days men, who were called out at the time of Bragg's invasion. There was no Battery D organized. The 33d Infantry was consolidated with the 26th Infantry on April 1st, 1864.
The 4th, 40th, 45th, 47th, 48th, 52d, 53d, 54th and Regiments served as mounted infantry.
Indiana.--This State sent five regiments of volunteers to the Mexican War, and hence it was deemed advisable, for historic reasons, to commence numbering the volunteers of the last war at the sixth regiment.
Other missing numbers in the list of regiments are accounted for by the following synonymous designations:
FINAL DESIGNATION SYNONYM 1st Indiana Heavy Artillery 21st Indiana Volunteers 1st Indiana Cavalry 28th Indiana Volunteers 2d Indiana Cavalry 41st Indiana Volunteers 3d Indiana Cavalry 45th Indiana Volunteers 4th Indiana Cavalry 77th Indiana Volunteers 5th Indiana Cavalry 90th Indiana Volunteers 6th Indiana Cavalry 71st Indiana Volunteers 7th Indiana Cavalry 119th Indiana Volunteers 8th Indiana Cavalry 39th Indiana Volunteers 9th Indiana Cavalry 121st Indiana Volunteers 10th Indiana Cavalry 125th Indiana Volunteers 11th Indiana Cavalry 126th Indiana Volunteers 12th Indiana Cavalry 127th Indiana Volunteers 13th Indiana Cavalry 131st Indiana Volunteers
The infantry regiments bore designations identical with their volunteer numbers.
The 56th, 61st, 62d, 92d, 94th, 95th, 96th, 98th, 122d, and 141st Regiments were not organized. The regiments from the 102d to the 114th were composed of "minute men" who served about ten days during the Morgan invasion. The 64th was intended to be a light artillery regiment, but it was not organized, and the companies selected for it served as independent batteries.
The regiments of the Indiana Cavalry did not sustain all their losses while in the mounted service. The 8th Cavalry served originally as the 39th Infantry, and part of its losses in battle occurred while in the infantry service. It fought as infantry at Shiloh and Stone's River, its casualties in the latter action amounting to 30 killed, 119 wounded, and 231 missing; total, 380. It was changed to mounted infantry in April, 1863, and to the 8th Cavalry in October, 1863. The 6th Cavalry also sustained part of its losses before it joined the mounted service, it having served originally as the 71st Infantry, during which it fought at Richmond, Ky., where it lost 29 killed, 91, wounded, and 593 missing and captured.
The 21st Infantry was changed to heavy artillery in March, 1863. Previous to that time it had sustained some heavy losses while acting as infantry, its casualties at the battle of Baton Rouge aggregating 24 killed, 98, wounded, and 4 missing; total, 126.
The largest number of veteran reŽnlistments in the Indiana Volunteers occurred in the following regiments:
Regiment Re-enlistments 1st Indiana Heavy Artillery 503 33d Indiana 460 34th Indiana 439 47th Indiana 416 8th Indiana 386 53d Indiana 381 29th Indiana 372 52d Indiana 370 18th Indiana 334 22d Indiana 331 24th Indiana 327 8th Indiana Cavalry 305 11th Indiana 296 51st Indiana 295 9th Indiana 291 17th Indiana 288 31st Indiana 285 25th Indiana 284 48th Indiana 284 20th Indiana 281 23d Indiana 278
The 16th, 17th, 25th, 39th, 51st, 65th, 71st, 72d, and 73d Indiana were equipped as mounted infantry during part of their service. The 17th and 72d Regiments, and the 18th Indiana Battery, formed a part of Wilder's" Lightning Brigade" of mounted infantry. This brigade was a well-known and efficient command.
The 9th Indiana Battery lost 29 men killed in a boiler explosion on the Steamer Eclipse, January 27, 1865, at Paducah, Ky.; the 9th Cavalry lost 78 men on the Steamer Sultana; and the 69th Infantry lost 2 officers and 20 men drowned by the swamping of a boat in Matagorda Bay.
Many of the noted generals of the war were Indianians: Generals Lew. Wallace, Hovey, Jefferson C. Davis, Meredith, Wagner, Jos. J. Reynolds, Kimball, Foster, Cruft, Harrow, Colgrove, Miller, Cameron, Gresham, Coburn, Hascall, Harrison, Veatch, Manson, Benton, Scribner, Wilder, Grose, and others.
The age and height of 118,254 Indiana soldiers (out of about 200,000 enlistments) was recorded, with the following interesting result:
Height No. of Men Under 5 ft 1 in 501 At 5 ft 1 in 263 At 5 ft 2 in 971 At 5 ft 3 in 2,503 At 5 ft 4 in 5,387 At 5 ft 5 in 9,171 At 5 ft 6 in 14,373 At 5 ft 7 in 15,328 At 5 ft 8 in 19, 140 At 5 ft 9 in 15,472 At 5 ft 10 in 15,047 At 5 ft 11 in 8,706 At 6 ft -- in 6,679 At 6 ft 1 in 2,614 At 6 ft 2 in 1,357 At 6 ft 3 in 406 Over 6 ft 3 in 336 Total 118,254
Age # Men Under 17 years 270 At 17 years 634 At 18 years 21,935 At 19 years 10,519 At 20 years 9,435 At 21 years 9,705 At 22 years 7,835 At 23 years 6,789 At 24 years 6,013 At 25 years 4,891 At 26 years 4,283 At 27 years 3,758 At 28 years 3,929 At 29 years 2,769 At 30 years 3,001 At 31 to 34 years 8,361 At 35 years and over 14,127 Total recorded 118,254
From the foregoing it will be seen that an entire division of stalwart Indianians could have been formed, in which every man would have been six feet or more in height.
Over 80,000 Indiana soldiers, however, were enlisted without preserving any record of their age and height. These figures approximate closely the ages and heights of the American volunteers of the same classes. Dr. Gould, however, thinks that the figures show "that the Indiana men are the tallest of all natives of the United States, and these latter the tallest of all civilized countries."
Illinois.--This State sent six regiments to the Mexican war, and when the Illinois Legislature passed the law, in April, 1861, authorizing the acceptance of regiments, it was provided in the Act that, "in token of respect to the Illinois regiments in Mexico," these new organizations should receive numbers commencing with the 7th.
The first six regiments which were organized under this Act -- 7th to 12th Infantry, inclusive -- were sworn in for three months' service, at the expiration of which they reorganized and enlisted for three years. Illinois responded promptly to every call for men, and was one of the few States which furnished troops in excess of its quota.
Of the generals who attained prominence in the war, Illinois is credited with: Grant, Logan, McClernand, Schofield, Palmer, Hurlbut, Black, Giles A. Smith, Oglesby, Mcarthur, Grierson, John E. Smith, Eugene A. Carr, White, Carlin, Lawler, Morgan, E. J. Farnsworth, Mulligan, and many others.
As in the troops from other States, many of the Illinois regiments had distinctive synonyms by which they were known as well as by their numerical designations. Among these were:
"First Scotch" 12th Illinois "Yates Phalanx" 39th Illinois "Second Scotch" 65th Illinois "First Douglass" 42d Illinois "First Irish" 23d Illinois "Northwestern Rifles" 44th Illinois "Irish Legion" 90th Illinois "Lead Mine Regiment" 45th Illinois "First Hecker" 24th Illinois "Chicago Legion" 51st Illinois "Second Hecker" 82d Illinois "Canton Rifles" 55th Illinois "Normal Regiment" 33d Illinois "National Guards" 57th Illinois "Rock River Regiment" 34th Illinois "Lyon Color Guard" 58th Illinois "Fox River Regiment" 36th Illinois "Ninth Missouri" 59th Illinois "Fremont Rifles" 37th Illinois "Yates Sharpshooters" 64th Illinois "Highlanders" 65th Illinois "Wilder's Mounted Infantry" 92d Illinois "Birge's Sharpshooters" 66th Illinois "Wilder's Mounted Infantry" 98th Illinois "First Board of Trade" 72d Illinois "Wilder's Mounted Infantry" 123d Illinois "Second Board of Trade" 88th Illinois "Brackett's Regiment" 9th Illinois Cavalry "Railroad Regiment" 89th Illinois "German Guides" 13th Illinois Cavalry "Excelsiors" 124th Illinois
Many of these regiments dropped their synonyms before the war closed, and were known only by their regular title; and, with some, the synonym was never used except on the printed placards of the recruiting officers.
The 9th, 50th, 80th, 87th, 112th, and 118th Regiments also served part of the time as mounted infantry.
Only one vacancy occurred in the list of Illinois regiments; the 121 st failed to complete its organization.
One regiment, known as the "Mechanics-Fusileers" or 56th Illinois Infantry, organized in November, 1861, to serve three years, was disbanded within four months, and another regiment, subsequently organized, was designated as the 56th Regiment. This latter regiment lost 11 officers and 195 men by the burning of the steamer "General Lyon," off Cape Hatteras, March 31, 1865.
The 19th Illinois lost 38 killed and 91 wounded in an accident on the Ohio & Mississippi R. R., near Vincennes, Ind., September 17, 1861. The 97th Illinois lost 18 killed and 67 wounded in a railroad accident in Louisiana, November 3, 1863.
In addition to the Illinois regiments specially mentioned in Chapter X, there were many other regiments from this State which had records equally meritorious, although their casualties in action may not have been as numerous.
The 41st Illinois, Colonel Isaac C. Pugh, faced the musketry of many hard-fought fields, its "Roll of Honor" showing 115 heroes who fell in battle, out of a total enrollment of 1,029,--a loss of over 11 per cent. Its first experience under fire was at Fort Donelson, where it fought in General C. F. Smith's Division, sustaining a loss of 14 killed, 113 wounded, and 3 missing; total, 130. A few weeks later it was engaged at Shiloh, it being then in Hurlbut's Division, and fought at the "hornet's nest," where it lost 21 killed, 73 wounded, and 3 missing, Lieutenant-Colonel Tupper being among the killed. While at Memphis, in March, 1863, a dispute arose among the generals as to which was the best drilled regiment in the Corps, and the matter was settled by a prize drill, in the presence of over ten thousand citizens and soldiers, and with three United States Army officers as judges, which resulted in an award of superiority to the Forty-first. During the siege of Jackson, Miss., the regiment participated in the deadly charge, of Pugh's Brigade, which was the subject of so much criticism and censure, and in which it lost 27 killed, 135 wounded, and 40 missing, -- a total of 202 out of 338 present. Major Long was mortally wounded in this affair. When General McPherson was killed, and his body sent home, the 41st was selected to accompany it as an escort.
The 96th Illinois, Colonel Thomas E. Champion, was another regiment which achieved a reputation as an efficient and reliable command. It distinguished itself at Chickamauga, where it fought in Steedman's Division of General Gordon Granger's Reserve Corps, holding its ground sturdily in the face of Longstreet's veterans, and retiring from the field only when darkness had terminated the conflict. Lieutenant-Colonel Clarke was killed in this battle, the total loss of the regiment amounting to 39 killed, 134 wounded, and 52 missing; total, 225.
The 18th Illinois, Colonel Michael K. Lawlor, was hotly engaged at Fort Donelson, fighting under McCler-nand, and losing there 53 killed, 157 wounded, and 18 missing; total, 228. At Shiloh the regiment lost three color-bearers killed in succession; and Major Eaton, who was in command of the regiment, was also killed. He had resigned ten days previous, but, having remained with the regiment, he entered the fight with the men and led them gallantly until he fell mortally wounded.
The 125th Illinois led the storming column of McCook's Brigade in the grand assault on Kenesaw Mountain, June 27, 1864. General McCook was with the advance, and fell mortally wounded on the enemy's works, having passed the abattis. Colonel Harmon, of the 125th, took his place instantly, and while urging the men to secure the victory so nearly won, fell with a bullet through his heart. The regiment lost 61, all of whom were killed or died of their wounds, in this assault, besides the large number of wounded who survived.
Michigan.--The regiments from this State, with one exception, enlisted for three years, and they were kept at an effective strength by repeated accessions of recruits, which accounts partly for the large "Roll of Honor" in so many of the Michigan regiments.
Each regiment completed its organization, leaving no missing numbers in the list. The 6th Infantry, however, was changed to heavy artillery, July 28, 1863; but the order authorizing this change specified that it should "retain, until otherwise officially designated, its infantry number." Its principal losses in battle occurred while serving as infantry and before it was converted to heavy artillery, during which it lost at Baton Rouge 15 killed, 44 wounded, and 6 missing; and, at Port Hudson, 20 killed and 129 wounded. An excessive proportion of the wounded died of their injuries.
Almost the entire loss in battle of the 22d Infantry occurred in one action, at Chickamauga, after which it was assigned to duty as a provost-guard, and, at times, on duty as engineers. The 9th Infantry served most of its time as the Provost-guard of the Army of the Cumberland, and was attached to General Thomas's Headquarters.
The best known, and one of the most efficient of the Michigan regiments in the West, was "Innes's" First Michigan Engineers, which was composed almost entirely of mechanics and engineers. Like the other engineer commands, it was a large regiment -- 1,800 strong--containing 12 companies of 150 men each. In repairing the damaged railroads along the lines of communications these men built bridges and trestles whose combined length could be measured by the mile, and erected block-houses by the score. The construction of some of these bridges, their size and height, and the marvellous quickness with which they were rebuilt, constituted some of the most wonderful feats of military engineering. This regiment could fight also, as well as do other duty, and a detachment under Colonel Innes won further distinction by its brilliant and successful defense of the army trains which were attacked by Wheeler's Cavalry during the battle of Stone's River. General Innes having been mustered out at the expiration of his term, he was succeeded by Colonel John B. Yates.
Many of the Michigan regiments went to the front in 1861 with Colonels who afterwards were numbered among the most distinguished generals of the war. On the roster of the 2d Cavalry are the names of" Colonel" Gordon Granger, and "Colonel" Philip H. Sheridan. Generals Russell A. Alger and Robert H. Minty served at one time as Majors in this same regiment.
Wisconsin.--The 4th Wisconsin Cavalry will be found in the list of infantry regiments, it having been organized as the 4th Infantry, and nearly all its losses in action having been sustained while in that arm of the service. It was changed to cavalry in September, 1863, prior to which it lost, at Port Hudson, 49 killed, 117 wounded, and 53 missing; and at Bisland, 5 killed and 8 wounded. General Bailey, who built the famous Red River dam, was Colonel of this regiment. General Halbert E. Paine was its first colonel.
The 3d Cavalry was attached to the Army of the Frontier, and, like many of the Western cavalry regiments, served in Missouri, Arkansas, and in the Indian Territory, fighting in unheard-of battles, and losing its men in engagements which are never mentioned in history and which were never lettered on the battle-flags of the Republic. One of the principal losses of the 3d Cavalry occurred at Baxter Springs, Cherokee Nation, October 6, 1863, where one company (1) attached to General Blunt's headquarters was attacked by Quantrell's guerrillas and forced to retreat with a loss of 33 killed and 14 wounded. The quartermaster was killed, and, of a regimental band which accompanied General Blunt, not a man escaped, the enemy giving no quarter.
The 1st Cavalry, also, lost 17 killed, 38 wounded, and 8 missing, in an affair at L'Anguille Ferry, Ark., August 3, 1862, the Chaplain of the First being among the killed.
The principal losses of the 12th Battery occurred in the heroic defense of Allatoona Pass, Lieutenant Amsden, who commanded the battery in this fight, falling mortally wounded. The Twelfth was the only artillery present at that memorable engagement.
The 8th Infantry, or "Eagle Regiment," became widely known by the live American eagle which it carried through the war, perched conspicuously on a staff beside the colors. The principal losses of this regiment were: At Corinth, 14 killed, 74 wounded, and 7 missing; and, at Nashville, 7 killed and 55 wounded? It served, also, at Vicksburg (then in the 3d Div., 15th A. c.), in the Red River campaign, and in the final operations of the war at Fort Blakely and Mobile. During the latter campaign it was in McArthur's Division, Sixteenth Corps.
The 14th Infantry was also one of Wisconsin's fighting regiments. Among its casualties were: At Shiloh, 16 killed, 74 wounded, and 3 missing; at Corinth (McKean's Division, A. of T.), 27 killed, 50 wounded, and 21 missing; and, at Vicksburg--assault of May 22d -- 4 killed, 79 wounded, and 4 missing. It fought under General A. J. Smith (16th A. C.) in the Red River campaign, the Tupelo Expedition, and in the closing battles of the war around Mobile.
The 24th Infantry, or "Milwaukee Regiment," was engaged in considerable hot work, losing during its term of service. 111 killed and mortally wounded out of a total enrollment of 1 .o 77, or over ten per cent. Its principal losses occurred: At Stone's River, 19 killed, 57 wounded, and 98 missing; at Chickamauga--in Sheridan's Division -- 3 killed, 73.wounded, and 29 missing; at Missionary Ridge, 3 killed and 26 wounded; and, on the Atlanta campaign, 112 killed and wounded. While on the latter campaign the regiment was hotly engaged at Resaca, and at Adairsville.
The 21st, also, lost over ten per cent. in killed and mortally wounded, it having carried 1,171 names on its rolls. At Chaplin Hills this regiment lost 38 killed, 103 wounded, and 56 missing; and, at Resaca, 10 killed and 43 wounded.
The 9th Wisconsin, or" First German," lost at Jenkins's Ferry 13 killed and 81 wounded ; the 10th Wisconsin, at Chaplin Hills, 37 killed, 109 wounded, and 4 missing, out of 16 officers and 360 men taken into action; the 12th Wisconsin, at Atlanta (battle of July 21st and 22d), 42 killed, 147 wounded, and 20 missing; the 15th, or "Scandinavian Regiment," at Stone's River, 15 killed (including the Lieutenant-Colonel), 70 wounded, and 34 missing, and at Chickamauga, 13 killed (including Colonel Heg), 53 wounded, and 45 missing; the 20th, at Prairie Grove, 50 killed, 154 wounded, and 13 missing; the 22d, at Resaca, 11 killed, 56 wounded, and 1 missing; the 29th, at Champion's Hill, 19 killed, 92 wounded, and 2 missing, and, at Port Gibson, 10 killed and 65 wounded. The 11th Wisconsin Battery was also known as Battery L, 1st Illinois Light Artillery.
Minnesota.-- The cavalry from this State served in Dakota Territory, where an active war was carried on with the Sioux Indians and other hostile tribes.
The 2d Minnesota Infantry distinguished itself early in the war by its participation in the battle of Mill Springs, Ky., one of the first battles, and the first Union victory, in the West. It took a prominent part in this engagement, its casualties amounting to 12 killed and 33 wounded. At Chickamauga this regiment fought in Vandever's (3d) Brigade, Brannan's (3d) Division, Fourteenth Corps, its losses on that field aggregating 34 killed, 107 wounded, , and 51 missing; total, 192.
The 3d Minnesota served mostly in Minnesota, Missouri, and on the frontier. The 4th sustained its principal losses at Vicksburg, and at Allatoona Pass.
One company (B) of the 5th Minnesota lost 23 men killed in a fight with Indians at Red Wood, Minn., August 18, 1862. This regiment fought at Corinth, Vicksburg, in the Red River campaign, at Tupelo, and, at Spanish Fort, in the Mobile campaign of 1865. It was also prominently engaged at Nashville, where it lost 14 killed, 92 wounded, and 1 missing; total, 107.
The 6th, 7th, 9th, and 10th Regiments served on the frontier in the Indian war, and afterwards fought under General A. J. Smith--Sixteenth Corps--at Tupelo, Nashville, and Mobile. The 10th Minnesota lost at Nashville 17 killed and 60 wounded.
The 8th Minnesota served in the Indian Territory, after which it was stationed, in 1864, on the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad, where it had a sharp fight at Murfreesboro, December 7, 1864, in which it lost 14 killed and 75 wounded.
Iowa.--The 3d Iowa Cavalry met its severest loss at Pea Ridge, the casualties in the five companies engaged there amounting to 24 killed, 17 wounded, and 9 missing. After the battle it was found that some of the bodies had been scalped, supposed to have been done by Indians who had joined the Confederate ranks.
The 6th and 7th Cavalry served most of their time in the Indian Territory, engaged in campaigns against the hostile tribes. Company F of the 7th Cavalry had a fight with a large force of Indians near Julesburg, and was obliged to retreat, leaving 14 of their detachment dead on the field. The bodies of these men were horribly mutilated by the savages.
The 37th Iowa, or "Graybeard Regiment," was a remarkable command. It was organized under General Order 89, State of Iowa, August 25, 1862, which specified that the regiment should be "composed of active and vigorous men, over the age of 45, and be assigned to garrison duty." The average age of the men thus recruited was 5 7 years. The rolls of the 37th, on which the age of each man is recorded, show that 3 of the recruits were over eighty, 7 were over seventy, and 123 were over sixty years of age. They enlisted for three years, and the hardy old pioneers performed their allotted duty as well as any regiment could have done. Had occasion demanded they would undoubtedly have gone into action cheerfully and acquitted themselves honorably.
Many of the regiments from this State were brigaded by themselves. These Iowa Brigades made brilliant records in the field, and secured for their State a full share of the laurels of the war. Prominent among these was "Hall's Iowa Brigade," of the Seventeenth Corps, composed of the 11th, 13th, 15th, and 16th Regiments. These troops were brigaded thus in April, 1862, under command of Colonel Crocker of the 13th Iowa, and served together until mustered out in July, 1865. Crocker, having been promoted Brigadier, was succeeded by Colonel Hall of the 11th, who was in turn succeeded, in August, 1864, by General William W. Belknap, formerly of the 15th. Colonels Reid and Chambers, also, commanded the brigade at times. It fought in all the battles of the Army of the Tennessee, in the Vicksburg and Atlanta campaigns, marched with Sherman to the Sea and through the Carolinas, and took part in the final grand review at Washington. The 32d Illinois was attached to this brigade, in November, 1864.
"Williamson's Iowa Brigade," of the Fifteenth Corps, was composed of the 4th, 9th, 25th, 26th, 30th, and 31st Regiments, and was a splendid command. It was organized in December, 1862, with General Thayer in command, who was succeeded soon after the Vicksburg campaign by Colonel James A. Williamson of the 4th Iowa. General Williamson having been mustered out in February, 1865, he was succeeded by Colonel George A. Stone of the 25th, who commanded the brigade on the campaign through the Carolinas.
At Shiloh, an Iowa Brigade composed of the 2d, 7th, 12th, and 14th Regiments fought under command of General Tuttle, then Colonel of the 2d Iowa; and, in the Vicksburg campaign, an Iowa Brigade -- 8th, 12th, and 35th Regiments-- under command of General Matthies, was attached to the Fifteenth Corps.
Three Iowa regiments--the 22d, 24th, and 28th -- served in Virginia during the Shenandoah campaign of 1864. They belonged, previously, to the Thirteenth Corps, but were transferred to the Nineteenth just before that Corps embarked at New Orleans for Virginia.
The heroic part taken by Iowa in the war may be better appreciated by a study of the following figures:
Regiment Battle K W M Total 2d Iowa Fort Donelson 33 164 --- 197 3d Iowa Shiloh 23 134 30 187 5th Iowa Iuka 37 179 1 217 6th Iowa Shiloh 52 94 37 183 7th Iowa Belmont 51 127 49 227 9th Iowa Pea Ridge 38 176 4 218 10th Iowa Champion's Hill 36 131 --- 167 11th Iowa Shiloh 33 160 1 194 16th Iowa Shiloh 17 101 13 131 19th Iowa Prairie Grove 45 145 3 193 22d Iowa Vicksburg 27 118 19 164 23d Iowa Big Black 13 88 --- 101 24th Iowa Champion's Hill 35 120 34 189 26th Iowa Arkansas Post 18 99 --- 117 32d Iowa Pleasant Hil l 35 117 56 208 39th Iowa Allatoona 40 52 78 170
There were only three missing numbers in the Iowa line. The 41st was a battalion which was transferred to the 7th Iowa Cavalry. The 42d and 43d Regiments failed to complete their organizations.
Missouri.--The losses of the Missouri regiments were severe in proportion to their numerical strength. The regiments were small and received but few recruits. It could not have well been otherwise. Throughout the war the State was one vast battle-ground, and was continually overrun with contending armies. In addition to the troops furnished the Union Army, the State was obliged to raise regiments to protect its own territory from the partisan bands which continually invaded it long after the main armies of the Confederacy had abandoned the field.
With this purpose in view the regiments known as the Missouri State Militia were organized. These troops were mostly mounted men, and were enlisted "to serve during the war, in Missouri." They were efficient, reliable commands, and the frequent engagements in which they participated is evidenced by the large number of their men who were killed in action.
In addition to the State Militia, some regiments were organized which were designated the United States Reserve Corps, and were enlisted for three months, after which they were reŽnlisted "to serve during the war, in Missouri."
The State furnished 109, 111 men, exclusive of a large force of militia which was in active service during most of the period of the war, and whose pay and expenses were borne by the State. In view of the terrible disadvantages under which it was compelled to labor, Missouri made a loyal and gallant record, -- one which will compare favorably with her sister States, and which entitles her to a place of honor in the history of the war.
The 1st Missouri Light Artillery was originally an infantry regiment--Colonel Frank P. Blair's--which enlisted for three months and fought at Camp Jackson, Boonville, and Wilson's Creek. In the latter engagement it lost 76 killed, 208 wounded, and 11 missing; total, 295. But few regiments in the war sustained a heavier loss in any one battle. After its three months' enlistment had expired it returned to St. Louis, where it reorganized as a light artillery regiment, and enlisted for three years.
The County Regiments--Benton, Lawrence, Stone, Greene, Cole, and Ozark Counties--enlisted for three months only; but it was three months of active service, and included some hard fighting.
The 7th Missouri Infantry won special distinction in the siege of Vicksburg by its gallantry in the desperate assault of May 22d, planting its colors on the enemy's works and losing six color-bearers killed in quick succession.
The 39th Missouri lost 2 officers and 120 men killed in a massacre at Centralia, Mo., September 27, 1864. Major Johnson of the 39th, with a detachment of 147 men from his regiment, attacked a large force of guerrillas under the command of the Confederate partisan, Anderson. Johnson and his men were surrounded after the first volley, and, no quarter being shown, but few escaped alive. Major Johnson was among the killed.
The designation of the 9th Missouri Infantry, which was organized in St. Louis, was changed to the 59th Illinois, as most of the men belonged in that State; and, for a similar reason, the 13th Missouri became the 22d Ohio.
Kansas.--In addition to the regiments mentioned in the above list, Kansas organized three others, which were composed of Indians, and were designated the Kansas Indian Home-Guard. These regiments were organized during the spring and summer of 1862, and served until the war had ended. They fought in the numerous battles in the Indian Territory, and were also engaged in some of the battles in Arkansas and Missouri,-- at Prairie Grove, and at Newtonia. These regiments were recruited mostly from the Creeks and Cherokees.
The 1st Kansas lost at Wilson's Creek 77 killed, 187 wounded, and 20 missing; total, 284.
The principal losses of the 8th Kansas were: At Chickamauga, 30 killed, 165 wounded, and 25 missing; at Missionary Ridge, 3 killed and 24 wounded ; and at Nashville, 8 killed and 32 wounded. At Chickamauga the regiment was in Davis's Division of McCook's (20th) Corps, but shortly after that battle it was assigned to Thos. J. Wood's Division of the Fourth Corps.
The number of troops furnished by Kansas was largely in excess of its quota, and was equal to 72 per cent. of its military population (white males from 18 to 45 years of age), as enumerated in the census of 1860.
Tennessee.-- Although this State joined the Southern Confederacy, it furnished thirty regiments to the Union Army, organized from refugees and volunteers who enlisted without the inducement of bounty, many of whom had to run the gauntlet of Confederate videttes, or avoid them by crossing the cold and desolate peaks of the Cumberland.
The total number of Union soldiers from Tennessee was 31,092, not including blacks. Averaged on the basis of a three years' enlistment, they were equal to 26,394 men. The regiments were small, and were maintained with difficulty at an effective strength.
In addition to these 31,092 enlistments, 20, 133 colored soldiers were recruited in this State. Of the 31,092 white troops, 6,777 lost their lives while in the service. A part, only, of the Tennessee Union regiments are given in the above list, the ones selected being those which were most prominent by reason of their losses in action or otherwise.
Of the deaths from disease in the 2d Tennessee Infantry, 382 occurred in Confederate prisons. The 7th Cavalry lost 193 from the same cause. The 2d Cavalry lost 260 men killed in the explosion of the steamer Sultana, near Memphis.
Regular Army. -- The Regular Army, prior to the war, contained nineteen regiments in all: five cavalry regiments (two of dragoons, two of cavalry, and one of mounted rifles), four artillery, and ten infantry. By authority of the President's proclamation of May 3, 1861 --approved by Congress July 21st--an addition was made of one cavalry, one artillery, and nine infantry regiments.
It was further ordered that the nine new infantry regiments should contain two, but not more than three, battalions of eight companies each. This contemplated strength, however, was not attained. Some of them succeeded in organizing two battalions, but all the infantry regiments are now ten-company commands.
The old regiments were small (maximum of ten companies), and all the regiments became so depleted by losses and lack of recruits, that,in 1863, they only numbered from two to eight companies each. Any comparison of their losses with those of volunteer commands should be accompanied by a statement of effective strength.
At Stone's River, the "Regular Brigade," of Rousseau's Division, Fourteenth Corps, made a brilliant record, and earned a reputation as a most efficient and reliable command. The brigade was composed of the 15th, 16th, 18th, and 19th Infantry, and Battery H of the 5th Artillery. The 18th Infantry had two battalions; the others, one each. The brigade took 1,566 officers and men into action, and sustained a loss of 94 killed, 489 wounded, and 47 missing; total, 630. The 16th Infantry lost 166 out of 308 engaged, or over 53 per cent.
At Gettysburg the two Regular brigades of Ayres's Division included ten regiments, but they contained, in all, only fifty-seven small companies. Out of 1,985 present in action, they lost 829 in killed, wounded and missing; and, in Burbank's Brigade, out of 80 officers present, 40 were killed or wounded.
Heavy losses were also sustained at Gaines's Mill by the 2d, 12th, and 14th Infantry; at Manassas, by the 14th; and at Spotsylvania, by the 11th.
The 9th Infantry was stationed on the Pacific Coast during the entire war. The 5th Infantry served in New Mexico. A part of the 8th Infantry was present at Cedar Mountain, where it fought in Augur's Division, Banks's Corps; and some of the companies served as a provost-guard at General McClellan's Headquarters. The principal loss of the 3d Cavalry occurred at Valverde, N.M., and at Cherokee Station, Ala.
Colored Troops.--There were 166 regiments of colored troops organized during the war. Their total losses in battle amounted to 2,751 men killed or mortally wounded, not including the deaths among the officers, who were whites.
The colored regiments in the above list were the ones which sustained the heaviest losses in battle, and together with the 54th Massachusetts, 55th Massachusetts, and 29th Connecticut, represent over three-fourths of the entire loss in action of this class of troops.
The regiments of Ferrero's Division sustained almost all their losses at the Mine Explosion and in the trenches before Petersburg. This division was also engaged at the Boydton Road, but with slight loss. The casualties in Paine's (formerly Hinks's) Division occurred in the first assault on Petersburg, June 15, 1864, at Chaffin's Farm, and at the Darbytown Road (Fair Oaks, 1864). The principal loss in Hawley's Division occurred at Deep Bottom, and Chaffin's Farm (Fort Gilmer).
The most of those killed in the 73d fell in the assault on Port Hudson; and the killed in the 2d Infantry, at Natural Bridge, Va. Eleven officers of the latter regiment, including the Colonel and Chaplain, died of disease at Key West, Fla., in the summer of 1864.
There is no satisfactory explanation for the surprising mortality in the 5th Colored Heavy Artillery, and 65th Colored Infantry. The former regiment was recruited in Louisiana and Mississippi, and was stationed along the Mississippi river at various points between Memphis and Port Hudson. The most of the deaths were caused by fevers; and at one time the regiment suffered from small pox. It was organized at Vicksburg in August, 1863, and was mustered out May 20, 1866. Its original designation was the 9th Louisiana Vols, A.D.
The 65th Colored Infantry was also stationed along the Mississippi. It was recruited in Missouri, and organized at Benton Barracks, Mo., in December, 1863, as the 2nd Missouri Vols., A.D. Over 100 men died at the Barracks before the regiment took the field, the men having been enlisted by the Provost-Marshals throughout the State and forwarded to this Post during an inclement season,-- thinly clad, and many of them hatless, shoeless, and without food. Many suffered amputation of frozen feet or hands, and the diseases engendered by this exposure resulted in a terrible and unprecedented mortality.
Miscellaneous Regiments.--In addition to the lists in the preceding pages, there were several regiments from the Territories and Southern States. The deaths in these commands are embraced in the losses credited their respective States and Territories, in the table given in the succeeding chapter. Some of these regiments suffered severely in action; notably, the 1st Colorado, which lost 32 killed and 76 wounded at Apache CaŮon; the 1st Louisiana (white), which lost 123 killed and wounded at Port Hudson; and the 1st Arkansas Cavalry, which lost over 100 men killed in the guerrilla fighting on the Arkansas Frontier.
The remarkably large number of deaths from disease in some regiments includes the deaths in Confederate prisons, in which case the latter should be deducted in order to prevent an erroneous impression regarding the death rate of the regiment.
The following named regiments sustained unusually heavy losses by deaths in Confederate prisons:
REGIMENT Died in Prison REGIMENT Died in Prison 1st Maine Cavalry 145 2d Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery 92 1st Vermont Cavalry 149 7th Pennsylvania Reserves 73 1st Vermont Heavy Artillery 167 45th Pennsylvania Infantry 98 1st Massachusetts Heavy Artillery 102 101st Pennsylvania Infantry 158 2d Massachusetts Heavy Artillery 173 103d Pennsylvania Infantry 181 27th Massachusetts Infantry 116 145th Pennsylvania Infantry 98 39th Massachusetts Infantry 102 190th Pennsylvania Infantry 126 58th Massachusetts Infantry 89 191st Pennsylvania Infantry 125 14th Connecticut Infantry 78 9th Maryland Infantry 114 16th Connecticut Infantry 154 45th Ohio Infantry 134 2d New York Cavalry 91 89th Ohio Infantry 108 5th New York Cavalry 99 100th Ohio Infantry 84 12th New York Cavalry 80 5th Indiana Cavalry 68 22d New York Cavalry 83 1st Kentucky Cavalry 115 4th New York Heavy Artillery 97 11th Kentucky Cavalry 141 7th New York Heavy Artillery 204 12th Kentucky Cavalry 64 8th New York Heavy Artillery 102 4th Kentucky Mounted Infantry 88 14th New York Heavy Artillery 84 16th Illinois Cavalry 157 39th New York Infantry 94 5th Michigan Cavalry 76 52d New York Infantry 103 6th Michigan Cavalry 98 85th New York Infantry 222 7th Michigan Cavalry 83 111th New York Infantry 74 8th Michigan Cavalry 91 140th New York Infantry 77 22d Michigan Infantry 122 146th New York Infantry 81 36th Wisconsin Infantry 102 154th New York Infantry 90 9th Minnesota Infantry 122 4th Pennsylvania Cavalry 120 3d Tennessee Cavalry 70 5th Pennsylvania Cavalry 76 6th Tennessee Cavalry 78 13th Pennsylvania Cavalry 122 7th Tennessee Cavalry 193 14th Pennsylvania Cavalry 148 2d Tennessee Infantry 382 18th Pennsylvania Cavalry 130 12th United States Infantry 77
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