Napoleonic Wargame Club
|Edition 9||February 2000|
Publisher: Pierre Desruisseaux, NWC webmaster
Editor: Ken Jones, British Army
Associate Editor: Chris Wattie, British Army
In this Issue ...
Welcome to the February 2000 edition of the NWC's newsletter. We almost managed to meet our production schedule (February, May, August, November)but a brief encounter with the surgeon's knife delayed final editing. It seems someone's stray (?) musket shot found its way into my derrière. A most painful accident that kept me out of the saddle for a time. Some shrapnel also found its way into my computer last month and although I was able to recover relatively unscathed from the attack, I did lose some material related to the newsletter. I apologize for this loss and request a resubmission from anyone who may have sent me a piece that does not appear herein. Again, many thanks to all those members who contributed articles, letters, dispatches, army news, pictures, etc. to the newsletter and helped make this happen. A special thanks to Rob Hamper for another fine 'Grapeshot' contribution and to Chris Wattie, John Mitchell, and Ruben Lopez for submitting this edition's feature articles. Many thanks also to Rob's guest, Mr. John Tiller for sharing with us his unique insights into computer wargaming, the Battleground Series, and some of his future projects .
The NWC continues to be a dynamic organization. This past quarter saw the addition of a Spanish Corps to the Allied-Coalition Armies and an American Navy. The Allied Armies (behind the efforts of the indomitable Tony Dobson) created a spanking new site for its Royal Military Academy as well as a new Mess Hall for the Allied officers. The latter being extremely well guarded, as any French officer can attest. Club activity was also boosted by the release of the free Battlefield Eylau (http://wargames.napoleonicwars.com/) game from Greg Gorsuch. Many thanks to Greg and company for all their hard work. We have heard nothing but rave reviews from members who have begun playing the game. Members are also looking forward to next month's release of John Tiller's new project with HPS Simulations, Campaign 1776. Not quite a Napoleonic game but one that comes pretty darn close. Is there an American Army in the Club's future? The game is now shipping and orders for the game can be placed at http://www.hpssims.com .
How goes the war you ask? According to end game reports (provided most expeditiously by Capt. Ian Travers, Scot's Greys), the combined Allied Armies have shown remarkable prowess of late. For the three months ending January 31st, the Allies have won 43 major victories and 13 minor victories vs. the French Armies' 31 major victories and 12 minor victories. There were also 10 draws during those three months. Though fewer in number, the Allied Armies managed to score more victory points in each month of the quarter than their French opponents. Take that you Corsican Tyrant! For a full breakdown of end game statistics click here. Well played gentlemen, well played indeed. And if you need tips on how to lose with honor, see the article/editorial by Associate Editor, Chris Wattie in this month's Feature Section.
In the meantime, there are plenty of battles to be fought. Enjoy the camaraderie, keep your honor intact, and remember to step out from behind that 12-pounder before lighting the fuse. Tally Ho!
Your Humble and Obedient Servant,
K. Jones, Editor
Strategy and Tactics | Dispatches | Regimental Histories | On the Internet | Letters to the Editor
Great things have been effected by a few men well conducted.
George Rogers Clark, 1778
In this Issue ...
We're back with another edition ofGrapeshot where we fire a bunch of questions at our guest and see what turns up. This time around we are very fortunate to have with us a man whom we all know and love in our own little way. It's hardly necessary to introduce this gentleman as we in the NWC are all familiar with his work. However, in the interests of hospitality let me present to you the man who has taken away life as we know it and replaced it with uncountable fun evenings, afternoons, nights and dawns of wargaming: Mr. John Tiller. John is none other than the designer of the Battleground series of games including the Napoleonic battles, a Battle of the Bulge game and a very large Civil War series. So, let's forgive him for making the ACW series bigger than the Napoleonic one and make him feel as part of the Club.
Hello John, I guess we'll start with the biography so people can get to know you a bit
better. Tell us a little about yourself, if you would.
I was born in Arkansas and lived there until I left for graduate school in Canada. At McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario I received a Ph.D. in Mathematics and married a Canadian. After graduation, I taught math and computer science in college and university for over seven years, then went to work for Boeing at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama. For the last few years, I've been a full-time game developer.
You were in Canada and Hamilton no less! Did you go to any Tiger-Cat football games (my
favourite CFL team)? How did you like Canada? More to us than snow and Celine Dion, eh?
I didn't attend any Tiger-Cat football games, but I like Canada very much and enjoy visiting there about once a year, either to Ontario or Manitoba. My wife and both of my children are Canadian.
That's great! I'm sure you'd like to move back there...Hmmm it appears that the editor is waving frantically. Ok, enough about Canada.
In your work with NASA, were you involved in any programs that we might be familiar
with i.e. Mars probe, the shuttle etc?
When working for NASA, I did mainly Space Shuttle support including ground computer support and mathematical analysis.
How long have you been a wargamer and what types of games did you play. What was the
first computer wargame that you played and do you still play any? Your favourites?
I've been a wargamer since I was a teen. Like many other people, I started out on the old Avalon Hill board games like D-Day and Panzerblitz. I also played the SSI games like Terrible Swift Sword and War In Europe. I got interested in computer war games because I got to the point where I just didn't have the space or the time to setup and play board games. I originally started out programming War In Europe for my 286 computer, then decided to try doing a computer version of the Battle of Shiloh on my next computer. I was also doing a lot of development on Unix computers using X-Windows. Later this work became the Battleground Series by TalonSoft. These days, I mainly enjoy playing my own games. I think it is very important that you enjoy playing the games you develop. This really shows in the quality of the game.
Yes, I guess it would be difficult to expect us to enjoy it if you don't like it
yourself. Which is the favourite of your personal creations? The more you play do you see
things you could have done differently?
Right now Smolensk is my favorite game (although I have some others that I really enjoy that I can't tell you about yet). As I find things I would do differently in games, I tend to go back and make improvements. So each one incorporates a lot of ideas.
When did you start working for Talonsoft? Can you tell us a bit about the working
arrangement, I mean you weren't a direct employee of that company, were you? Did you enjoy
your time with them?
I originally submitted my computer war games to Avalon Hill where they caught the eye of Jim Rose, who was the Computer Game Director there. When he started, TalonSoft he convinced me and several other people at Avalon Hill to join him. I worked for TalonSoft as an independent contractor on a game by game basis. I continued to live in Alabama and the development relied on the Internet quite a bit to transfer files back and forth. The original development was very, very special with everyone on the team contributing to the effort. Charlie Kibler and I hit it off right away and the two of us came up with many ideas that people now associate with my games. [Charlie Kibler was a playtest coordinator for TalonSoft who recently left to work for Breakaway Games with the other 4 people.]
I'm curious as to why you started with a WWII game (Ardennes), went to a Civil War game
and then a Napoleonic game (Waterloo). Why did you not return to the WWII series?
We decided to start the Battleground Series with a World War II game since it looked like that game would be the quickest to develop and have a pretty broad appeal. Since I had much of the Civil War games already done, we then moved on and completed the first of those, Battleground Gettysburg. Since many of us on the team had an interest in Napoleonics, especially people like Joe Hummel, we pursued that as a derivative of the Civil War engine, which worked pretty well. The Civil War and Napoleonic series were doing so well, we didn't turn our attention back to World War II until we started the Campaign Series.
With so much more potential why was the Napoleonic games not extended? Do you regret no
doing more of them?
I have an interest in most all areas of wargaming including World War II, Civil War, Napoleonics, and many, many others. I eventually hope to cover every major campaign of several areas. When you depend on selling games through traditional stores, there are market pressures on you to focus on the more popular areas that have an immediate appeal to the average buyer. In the Internet-based commerce that HPS Simulations pursues, there is the opportunity to delve into many more and diverse areas. So I'm pretty optimistic that I can pursue a number of different ideas now.
You have developed an American Revolutionary Wargame called Campaign 1776. Is
this the fulfillment of a dream or just another step in your design career?
Like I said I have an interest in lots of different areas. The American Revolution is naturally one of those. In looking at that war, the thing that strikes you is that the battles are so small compared with other situations like the Civil War. You can stand on the hill overlooking the field at Guilford Courthouse and be astounded by the fact that the fate of this country was determined in an area hardly bigger than a football field. The other key design issue about the American Revolution is that the significant events are so dispersed in terms of time. That is, you have singular events like Guilford Courthouse with long periods of inactivity between them. The design I've come up with for Campaign 1776 I think works pretty well. It is a smaller scale than the Civil War or Napoleonics and uses a linked campaign concept that takes care of the long delays.
Could you please tell us exactly what happened with Talonsoft regarding the completion
and blocked release of 1776 so we have the matter straight? How was it resolved?
There were some very unfortunate misunderstandings about my development of Campaign 1776 that resulted in me having to stop production while things got sorted out. I was able to work with Jamie Leece of Take-Two over the Fall and clear up several issues to our mutual satisfaction. Jamie and I have developed a very good working relationship that has allowed us to discuss issues in a reasonable way and come to understandings about several matters. With some look-and-feel issues addressed, Campaign 1776 is being re-released by HPS.
So, the big issue was that Campaign 1776 looked too much like the Battleground
I agreed to make look-and-feel changes to Campaign 1776 which allowed me to resubmit it for publication. That is the only difference between the game now and how it was before.
How about a short overview of "1776" and what would make it so appealing that
gamers would buy it.
Campaign 1776 is an interesting game for several reasons:
a. It covers most every battle of the American Revolution from the smaller ones such as Cowpens up to the larger battles such as Saratoga. The scale makes it possible to include a lot of detail.
b. The game has a linked campaign concept that allows individual battles to be played resulting in a campaign outcome, either against the computer or via Play-By-E-Mail.
c. The game includes some very nice graphics done by Joe Amoral including detailed uniforms. [Examples of Joe Amoral's work can be found at http://www.brightok.net/~gameart/enter.html
d. Background music of the period performed by Tom Hook plays during the game.
Is the ARW covered in it's entirety or will there be some related releases?
Campaign 1776 pretty much covers the entire Revolutionary War and so I don't have any plans to add anything additional for this war, but I do intend to pursue the game concept in related areas.
Could you expound on that a bit more?
The scale of Campaign 1776 is such that it lends itself to situations where the scale is smaller than say the Civil War or Napoleonics. There are several situations where the battles were smaller and perhaps the situation less complicated than the Civil War or Napoleonics. My overall goal is to do a game on just about every war in history, so it isn't hard to think of possibilities here.
John, you have obviously been involved with the gameplay versus realism debate. Tell us
briefly your point of view and then give us some indication about in which direction games
will be moving.
I definitely feel that gameplay is the goal when designing games. The realism should be there to support the gameplay, not dominate it. I've found that it is possible to add more and more detail to games without sacrificing gameplay, but you have to be continually careful and watch for situations that seem interesting, but that can open a can of worms.
Any "Easter Eggs" in the game you care to drop a hint about
Unless Joe did something I'm not aware of, there aren't any graphical "Easter Eggs" in the game. But people should take particular notice of the cover painting done by Andy Thomas of Washington at Monmouth. Andy is a very talented artist living in Carthage, Missouri who has done paintings on a number of different areas, including the Civil War. I'm hoping that using Andy's paintings in my games will bring some attention to his efforts.
We'll keep a watch for them for sure.
You've also just released a new WWII game "Smolensk". Why did you pick this
battle? What makes this game different from the others? What's coming down the pipes in
terms of future WWII games?
The Smolensk game is the result of some brainstorming that Greg Smith of HPS (http://www.hpssims.com) and I did last year. We started out talking about games that we enjoyed, Atlantic Wall, Highway to the Reich, and so forth and naturally started focusing on the 1 kilometer scale for a new game. After deciding that this would work well with the old Panzergruppe Guderian game setting, we began specific development. We've included some other people to look at the western front and things are really rolling.
Will you ever return to designing Napoleonic wargames? Any future plans?
Oh yes, I plan on doing several Napoleonic games as well as more Civil War games and also other games from other periods. In the HPS production environment, there is almost no idea that can't be pursued. This is for two reasons. First, HPS is a small efficient organization with low overhead. But second, and most important, HPS is lead by Scott Hamilton, who is a very encouraging person and allows people to pursue ideas in an independent manner.
Is it true that Bill Peters has wanted to do some of the programming on location in Austria? What about rumours that he wants to hire an Austrian Oompah band to do the soundtrack? Hmmm, the Editor is once again waving frantically. I guess we'll shelve that one.
Are you aware of the people who are doing the additions to the Battleground games (both
Napoleonic and Civil War)? Have you seen Greg Gorsuch's "Eylau"
I've heard of other freelance developments associated with the older Battleground games but haven't had the time to look at them. I'm actually developing my own new game engine which I'll use for some new games. My schedule for this was disrupted by the problems I had with TalonSoft, but now that those are resolved, I hope to be able to continue this work.
Will your new games feature the same flexibility as the Battleground games in the way people could modify the graphics and OOB's and just about everything else?
Do you think Talonsoft should release the Battleground Series to the public domain
given the fact that there is so much interest by wargamers in making their own scenarios
and large games? Also, interest has been expressed by a number of players of the
Napoleonic Battleground games to tweak the engine. Would you like to see some public
creations based on the Battleground engine?
Frankly what I'd like to see is my new games being published! I've got some very talented and enthusiastic people working for me who have done just a ton of work on some new games. In the near future, I should be able to publish a series of new games based on this work, but right now it's just a matter of scheduling.
We'd love to see more of your games published too! John Tiller, thank you so much for your time and patience. It was a terrific experience to interview you and I'm sure the readers were intrigued by what you had to say. We'll revisit you again when there are some more developments with your games. Good luck.
Well, that was, I think, another successful edition ofGrapeshot. The column is starting to rack up as many wins as Stefan Reuter! I sincerely hope that you found the interesting and worthwhile. I realize I could have asked John a million questions that you feel are burning issues, but he's a busy man and I have to keep this article of reasonable length. However, as compensation for those who feel I may have missed the mark, send in your comments and perhaps we can get John to return for another load of Grapeshot. Thanks to John for participating and thank you for reading.
RANKS IN THE IMPERIAL RUSSIAN ARMY*
By Podporuchik Victor Vityai. Edited by Podpolkovnik Karl Schneider
* material taken from "Russian Officer Corps" by S.V. Volkov, 1993.
The Russian raking system was established at the beginning of the 18th century during the reign of Peter the Great and remained largely consistent until the Bolshevik Revolution.
The ranking system differed for officers in army and navy, and varied even further for engineer, artillery and guard troops. The ranks also differed between infantry and cavalry. It is interesting to note that dragoon cavalry had the same ranks as the infantry. Not to be outdone, Cossacks had their own ranking system.
This certainly led to some confusion and as a result, the ranking system was simplified by the end of the 19th century but different ranks remained in the army, navy and Cossack corps. With the exception Rotmister (captain) and Kornet (podporuchik), cavalry and infantry had the same ranks.
At the end of 18th century the ranking system of the Officer Corps were as follows:
Army Artillery\Engineer Dragoon Hussars Guard Cavalry Guard Infantry Cossacks
Polkovnik Polkovnik Polkovnik Polkovnik Polkovnik Polkovnik Polkovnik
Major Major -------------- Major Shtabs-rotmists Shtabs-kapitan Voiskovoi-Starshina
Kapitan Kapitan Kapitan Rotmistr Poruchik Poruchik Esaul
Shtabs-kapitan Shtabs-kapitan Shtabs-kapitan Shtab-rotmistr -------------- -------------- --------------
Poruchik Poruchik Poruchik Poruchik Kornet Praporschik Sotnik
Podporuchik Podporuchik Podporuchik -------------- -------------- -------------- --------------
Praporschik -------------- Praporschik Kornet -------------- -------------- Khorunzhiy
In 1802, the ranks of podpolkovnik and major were abolished for guard artillery. In 1810, the rank of major was abolished and rank of praporschik established in artillery and engineer troops. Sometime after 1811, the ranking for dragoons was brought to be in order with other cavalry units.
For the ranks of higher military commanders, the first mention of some structure was in 17th century. The rank of General began to be used in 1655. The rank of General - Field Marshal appeared in 1699. Other developments include General-Poruchik (1659), General-Major (166), Gerenal-Leutenant (1698), and General-Anshef (1781).
The highest Russian military rank of Generalissimus was established in 1694. This rank survived the Soviet upheaval and is still used in Russia and other former Soviet Republics. This rank was given only to 5 people during its history. Stalin was the last one, Suvorov was the last one before him.
With this historical framework in mind, the new Russian ranking system for the NWC was developed:
Praporschik (Kadet) - In Training
Podporuchik (2nd Lieu.) - 0-29 points
Poruchick (Lieutenant)- 30-59 points
Kapitan (Captain) - 60-89 points
Shtabs-Kapitan - 90-119 points
Major - 120 - 179 points
Podpolkovnik (Lieutenant Colonel) - 180 - 259 points
Polpovnik (Colonel) - 260 - 399 points
Generalmajor - 400 - 599 points
Generallieutenant - 600 - 799 points
General - 800 - 999 points
General-Field Marshal - 1000 - 1499 points
Generalissimus** - 1500 points -
Prince*** - N\A
** Generalissimus would only be awarded as a special honour (in addition to the points) and there could only be one standing Generalissimus in the Russian Army at any time
***Prince is also a special honor for those of at least the rank of Generalmajor for those who have contributed to the NWC or Russian Army. The recipient must be nominated by a Corps commander or Army CiC and voted upon unanimously by all Corps commanders.
Although westerners may have difficulty remembering much less pronouncing the new ranks, the Russian Army now has a historically accurate ranking structure consistent with the French, Prussian and British Armies.
In honour of the newest addition to our club, the Spanish Corps of the British-Allied Army, we offer the following account of the Battle of Waterloo written by a Spanish observer of the action:
Spain at Waterloo
The lieutenant-general of the Royal Armies, Don Miguel de Alava, minister plenipotentiary of his Majesty of Holland, has addressed to his Excellency Don Pedro Cevallos, first secretary of state, the following letter:
Most Excellent Sir,
The short space of time that has intervened between the departure of the last post and the victory of the 18th, has not allowed me to write to your Excellency so diffusely as I could have wished; and although the army is at this moment on the point of marching, and I also am going to set out for the Hague, to deliver my credentials, which I did not received till this morning; nevertheless, I will give your Excellency some details respecting this important event, which, possibly, may bring us to the end of the war much sooner than we had any reason to expect.
I informed your Excellency, under date of the 16th instant, that Buonaparte, marching from Maubeuge and Philippeville, had attacked the Prussian posts on the Sambre, and that, after driving them from Charleroi, he had entered that city on the 15th.
On the 16th, the Duke of Wellington ordered his army to assemble on the point of Quatre Bras, where the roads cross from Namur to Nivelles, and from Brussels to Charleroi; and he himself proceeded to the same point, at seven in the morning.
On his arrival, he found the Hereditary Prince of Orange, with a division of his own army, holding the enemy in check, till the other divisions of the army were collected.
By this time, the British division under General Picton had arrived, with which the duke kept up an unequal contest with more than thirty thousand of the enemy, without losing an inch of ground. The British guards, several regiments of infantry, and the Scotch brigade, covered themselves with glory on this day; and Lord Wellington told me, on the following day, that he never saw his troops behave better during the number of years he had commanded them.
The French cuirassiers suffered very considerable loss; for, confiding in their breast-plates, they approached so near the British squares, that they killed some officers of the forty-second regiment with their swords; but those valiant men, without giving way, kept up so strong a fire, that the whole ground was covered with the cuirassiers and their horses. In the mean time, the troops kept coming up; and the night put an end to the contest in this quarter.
During this time Buonaparte was fighting with the remainder of his forces against Marshal Blucher, with whom he had commenced a sanguinary action at five in the afternoon; from which time, till nine in the evening, he was constantly repulsed by the Prussians, with great loss on both sides. But, at that moment, he made his cavalry charge with so much vigour, that they broke the Prussian line of infantry, and introduced disorder and confusion throughout.
Whether Buonaparte did not perceive this circumstance, or that he had experienced a great loss; or, what is more probable, that Marshal Blucher had reestablished the battle, the fact is, that he derived on advantage whatever from this affair, and that he left the Prussians quiet during the whole of the night of the 16th.
Lord Wellington, who, by the morning of the 17th, had collected the whole of his army in the position of Quatre Bras, was combining his measures to attack the enemy, when he received a despatch from Marshal Blucher, communicating to him the events of the preceding day, together with the incident that had snatched the victory out of his hands; adding, that the loss he had experienced was of such a nature, that he was forced to retreat to Wavre, on our left, where the corps of Bulow would unite with him, and that on the 19th he would be ready for any affair he might with to undertake.
In consequence of this, Lord Wellington was obliged immediately to retreat; and this he effected with so much skill, that the enemy did not dare to interrupt him. He took up a position on Braine le Leud, in front of the great wood of Soignés, as he had previously determined, and placed in head-quarters in Waterloo.
I joined the army on that morning, though I had received no orders to this effect, because I believed that I should thus best serve his Majesty, and at the same time fulfil your Excellency's directions; and this determination has afforded me the satisfaction of having been present at the most important battle that has been fought for many centuries, in its consequences, its duration, and the talents of the chiefs who commanded on both sides, and because the peace of the world, and the future security of Europe, may be said to have depended on its result.
The position occupied by his lordship was very good; but towards the centre it had various weak points, which required good troops to guard them, and much science and skill on the part of the general-in-chief. These qualifications were, however, sufficiently found in the British troops and their illustrious commander; and it may be asserted, without offence to any one, that to them belongs the chief part, or all the glory of this memorable day.
On the right of the position, and a little in advance, was a country-house, the importance of which Lord Wellington quickly perceived, because the position could not be attacked on that side without carrying it, and it might therefore be considered as its key.
The duke confided this important point to three companies of the English guards, under the command of Lord Saltoun, and laboured during the night of the 17th in fortifying it as well as possible, covering its garden, and a wood which served as its park, with Nassau troops, as sharp-shooters.
At half-past ten, a movement was observed in the enemy's line, and many officers were seen coming from and going to a particular point, where there was a very considerable corps of infantry, which we afterwards understood to be the imperial guard; here was Buonaparte in person, and from this point issued all the orders. In the mean time, the enemy's masses were forming, and every thing announced the approaching combat, which began at half-past eleven, the enemy attacking desperately with one of his corps, and with his usual shouts, the country-house on the right.
The Nassau troops found it necessary to abandon their post, but the enemy met such resistance in the house, that, though they surrounded it on three sides, and attacked it with the utmost bravery, they were compelled to desist from their enterprise, leaving a great number of killed and wounded. Lord Wellington sent fresh English troops, who recovered the wood and garden, and the combat ceased for the present on this side.
The enemy then opened a horrible fire of artillery from more than two hundred pieces, under cover of which Buonaparte made a general attack from the centre to the right, with infantry and cavalry in such numbers, that it required all the skill of his lordship to post his troops, and all the good qualities of the latter to resist the attack.
General Picton, who was with his division on the road from Brussels to Charleroi, advanced with the bayonet to receive them; but was unfortunately killed at the moment when the enemy, appalled by the attitude of this division, fired, and then fled.
The English life-guards then charged with the greatest bravery, and the forty-ninth and one hundred and fifth French regiments lost their respective eagles in this charge, together with two or three thousand prisoners. A column of cavalry, at whose head were the cuirassiers, advanced to charge the life-guards, and thus save their infantry; but the guards received them with the utmost valour, and the most sanguinary conflict of cavalry that ever was witnessed now took place.
The French cuirassiers were completely beaten, in spite of their cuirasses, by troops who had no defence of the kind; and they lost one of their eagles in this conflict, which was taken by the heavy English cavalry called the Royals.
Intelligence now arrived that the Prussian corps of Bulow had reached St. Lambert, and that Prince Blucher, with another corps under the command of General Ziethen, was advancing with all haste to take part in the combat, leaving the other two in Wavre, which had suffered much in the battle of the 16th, at Fleurus. The arrival of these troops was absolutely necessary, in consequence of the forces of the enemy being now more than triple ours, and our loss having been horrid during an unequal combat, from half-past eleven in the morning till five in the afternoon.
Buonaparte, who did not believe them to be so near, and who reckoned upon destroying Lord Wellington before their arrival, perceived that he had fruitlessly lost more than five hours, and that, in the critical position in which he would soon be placed, there remained no other resource but that of desperately attacking the weak part of the British position, and thus, if possible, beat the duke before his own right was turned and attacked by the Prussians.
Henceforward, therefore, the whole was a repetition of attacks by cavalry and infantry, supported by more than three hundred pieces of artillery, which made horrid ravages in our line, and killed and wounded numerous officers, artillerists, and horses, in the weakest part of the position.
The enemy, aware of this destruction, made a charge with the whole cavalry of his guard, which tool some pieces of cannon that could not be withdrawn; but the duke, who was at this point, charged them with three battalions of English and three of Brunswickers, and compelled them in a moment to abandon the artillery, though we were unable to withdraw them for want of horses; nor did they dare to advance to recover them.
At last, about seven in the evening, Buonaparte made a final effort, and putting himself at the head of his guards, attacked the above point of the English position with such vigour, that he drive back the Brunswickers who occupied part of it; and, for a moment, the victory was undecided, and even more than doubtful. The duke, who felt that the moment was most critical, spoke to the Brunswick troops with that ascendancy which a great general possesses, made them return to the charge, and putting himself at their head, again restored the combat, exposing himself to every kind of personal danger.
Fortunately at this moment he perceived the fire of Marshal Blucher, who was attacking the enemy's right with his usual impetuosity; and the moment of decisive attack being come, the duke put himself at the head of the English foot-guards, spoke a few words to them, which were answered by a general hurrah, and his Grace himself leading them on with his hat in his hand, they eagerly rushed forward to come to close action with the imperial guard. But the latter began a retreat, which was soon converted into the most complete rout ever witnessed by military men. Entire columns, throwing down their arms and cartouch-boxes, that they might escape the better, fled in the utmost disorder from the field, and abandoned to us nearly one hundred and fifty pieces of cannon. The rout at Vittoria was not comparable to this, and it only resembles it, inasmuch, as on both occasions, the French lost all the train of artillery and stores of the army, as well as all the baggage.
The Duke followed the enemy as far as Gemappe, where he found the illustrious Blucher, and both embraced in the most cordial manner, on the principal road to Charleroi; but, finding himself in the same position with the Prussians, and that his army stood in need of rest after so dreadful a struggle, he left to Blucher the charge of the following up the enemy, who promised that he would not leave them a moment to rest. He is now pursuing them, and yesterday, at noon, he had reached Charleroi, whence he intended to proceed at night, and continue the chase.
This is the substance of what took place on this memorable day; but the consequences of the affair are too evident for me to detain you in stating them.
Buonaparte, now tottering on his usurped throne, without money and without troops to recruit his armies, has received a mortal blow, and according to the language of the prisoners, no other resource is left him, 'than to cut his own throat.'
It is said that he had never been known to expose his person so much, and that he seemed to seek death, that he might not survive a defeat fraught with such fatal consequences.
I informed your Excellency, under date of the 16th, that this manoeuvre appeared to be extremely daring in the face of such generals as Blucher and the Duke. The event has fully justified my prediction. For this reason, I conceive that his executing it has arisen merely from despair, at the appearance of the innumerable troops who were about to attack him on every side, and in order to strike one of his customary blows before the Russians and Austrians came up.
His military reputation is lost for ever; and, on this occasion, there is no treason on the part of the allies, nor bridges blown up before their time, on which to throw the blame: all the shame will fall upon himself. Numerical superiority, superiority of artillery, all was in his favour; and his having commenced the attack, proves that he had sufficient means to execute it.
In short, this talisman, whose charm had so long operated on the French military, has been completely dashed to pieces. Buonaparte has for ever lost the reputation of being invincible; and, henceforward, this character will belong to an honourable man, who, far from employing this glorious title in disturbing and enslaving Europe, will convert it into an instrument of her felicity, and in procuring for her that peace which she so much requires.
The loss of the British is dreadful, and of the whole military staff, the Duke and myself alone remained untouched in our persons and horses.
The Duke of Brunswick was killed on the 16th, and the Prince of Orange and his cousin, the Prince of Nassau, aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington, received two balls. The Prince of Orange distinguished himself extremely, but, unfortunately, although his would is not dangerous, it will deprive the army of his important services for some time, and possibly he may lose the use of his left arm.
Lord Uxbridge, general of cavalry, received a wound at the close of the action, which made the amputation of his right leg necessary: this is an irreparable loss, for it will be difficult to find another chief to lead on the cavalry with the same courage and skill.
The duke was unable to refrain from shedding tears on witnessing the death of so many brave and honourable men, and the loss of so many friends and faithful companions. Nothing but the importance of the triumph can compensate for a loss so dreadful.
This morning he has proceeded to Nivelles, and, to-morrow, he will advance to Mons, whence he will immediately enter France. The weather cannot be better.
I cannot close this despatch without stating to your excellency, for the information of his majesty, that Captain Don Nicholas de Minuissir, of Doyle's regiment, and of whom I before spoke to your excellency, as well as of his destination in the army, conducted himself yesterday with the greatest valour and propriety. He was wounded when the Nassau troops were driven from the garden; yet he rallied them, and led them back to their post. During the action, he had a horse wounded under him, and, by his former conduct, as well as by his behaviour on this day, he merits from his majesty some proof of his satisfaction.
This officer is well known in the war-office, as well as to General Don Josef de Zayas, who has duly appreciated his merits.
God preserve your excellency many years,
Christopher Kelly. A Full And Circumstantial Account Of The Memorable Battle of Waterloo. (London: 1836).
Wellington and Queen Victoria?
The following article recently appeared in the Sunday Telegraph, of London:
LISBON * A Portuguese man is threatening to sue Queen unless she recognizes his claim of Royal lineage, that he is descended from a secret child of Queen Victoria and the Duke of Wellington. Francisco Manoel, a 43-year-old antique furniture restorer from Lisbon, has written the Queen four times over the last year, requesting DNA samples so that he can prove his ancestry, and suggesting "a family meeting." Mr. Manoel, who adds Hanover-Coburg to his last name, has enlisted the support of the Roman Catholic Church to exhume the bodies of other European royals related to Victoria and has set up a website with photographs of himself and other family members alongside those of the Queen and other Royals to show their supposed resemblance. Mr. Manoel's prominent nose does bear a likeness to the Duke of Wellington, whose troops nicknamed him "Nosey." He claims that his great-grandfather, Marcos Manoel, born in 1834 and abandoned at the Catholic shelter in Lisbon, was the fruit of an affair between the then Princess Alexandrina Victoria and Arthur Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington.
Although Queen Victoria was just 15 at the time and Wellington a widower of 64, Mr Manoel insists that "having lost her own father when she was a baby, Victoria had always looked on Wellington as a father figure. But women found him irresistible and when she became an adolescent, she too fell for his charms." According to Mr. Manoel, the affair between the heir to the throne and the hero of Waterloo took place on the Isle of Wight, in southern England, and it was to there that Victoria retreated when it became clear that she was pregnant. He cites as evidence the reference in biographies to her suffering an "indisposition" in 1834 and disappearing from public view. He also points to the destruction of Queen Victoria's papers after her death by her youngest daughter Princess Beatrice. Queen Victoria meticulously kept a diary that filled more than 122 volumes and their loss has led many historians to speculate that she had something to hide, though never before that this might involve Wellington and a love child.
The infant was supposedly smuggled to Portugal because of Wellington's connections with the country where he had twice led forces to repel Napoleon and was regarded as a hero. Mr. Manoel has presented his case in a book The British Crown's Great Secret, published in Lisbon in English and Portuguese, a copy of which has been sent to Buckingham Palace, inscribed to: "My dear cousin Elizabeth." >He has received a reply only to his first letter which, while not denying his claim, said that there seemed "little evidence." A palace spokesman said: "A number of people make claims to descendancy from the Royal Family and other European royal families. We don't take them seriously."
Lady Longford, an authority on Queen Victoria, has read the book and while confirming that Wellington was "a very close family friend," insists that Mr. Manoel's claims are "absolutely untrue. His great grandfather probably was descended from some English person but not Queen Victoria - she was absolutely under the thumb of her mother and did not even have her own bedroom."
But Mr. Manoel also produced various items to prove his claim, items he says were left with his great-grandfather as "signs of a foundling," including a silver pencil holder with Queen Victoria's crest. Mr. Manoel acknowledges that "my story is stranger than fiction," but adds: "There is only one way to disprove it."
He has obtained permission from Lisbon council to exhume the bodies of his ancestors for DNA sampling. One of the other corpses he is hoping to have exhumed is King Ferdinand II of Portugal, Queen Victoria's first cousin. Mr. Manoel is determined to pursue his claim against the Queen to the courts if necessary. "I am not seeking the throne or trying to start a war," he said. "I just want to achieve recognition and rectify history."
The Front Page | Feature Articles | Dispatches | Regimental Histories | On the Internet | Letters to the Editor
Strategy and Tactics
Artillery is more essential to cavalry than to infantry, because cavalry has no line for its defense, but depends upon the sabre. It is to remedy this deficiency that recourse has been had to horse-artillery. Cavalry, therefore, should never be without cannon, whether attacking, rallying, or in position.
Napoleon's Maxim of War LII
Charge of French Cuirassiers
In this Issue ...
Real Victory : Losing with Honor
Brigadier General Sir Chris Wattie, Royal Horse Guard Blues, British Army
Much ado is made in this club about winning games, with good reason in many cases, but for the most part, in the proper spirit of fun. We all enjoy winning, even those of us not positively American, and let's face it: the game is much more fun when you're trouncing the hated French (or British, Prussians, Russians, depending on your point of view). But consider: if winning were all there was to it, we'd all stay at home and play the AI. Speaking only for myself, some of the most enjoyable games I've played since joining the club have been losses.
Although I haven't had the pleasure of losing very often, it struck me during one particularly close-fought minor victory (to the French) that the key to being a good club member, or for that matter, a good officer in any of the club's six armies, is losing. I admire greatly the skill and fiendish cleverness of an opponent who matches me strategem for strategem, takes advantage of my (rare) mistakes and gives me few openings to exploit. But with apologies to those of my opponents who fall into this category, I admire even more a recent opponent of mine who was beaten rather resoundingly. REALLY resoundingly; actually, a major Allied victory at least two (nearly) three times over.
This officer, however, continued to fight on gamely, even after it was clear that he was over-matched and had no hope of winning or even managing a draw. We played the full length of the scenario, which must have been a tad depressing for him, watching his regiments turn into battalions, then companies, then platoons. As the battle progressed, however, he began to ask fairly intelligent questions, and with the game decided I took it upon myself to answer -- giving him a few pointers that obviously hadn't been taught at the Ecole de Mars. I also restrained somewhat my often aggressive style of play and by the end of the 28-turn scenario his play had improved dramatically, although the situation was beyond salvaging. Upon completion of the game, I immediately offered him a rematch, choosing a scenario with advantage to the French (which I have since had cause to regret), and made a point of e-mailing the officer's superiors singing his praises and recommending him for a bucket full of medals.
Not out of pity, you understand. But because it really does take gumption to play such a hopeless cause and stick with it; even learn from it. In short, I believe we all have much to learn in the tactics of failure. "Learn to lose, and Lose to learn," would be a great motto. It only takes a little creativity and effort to lose games, and the benefits are multifold. You will develop a healthy perspective on life-it is after all only a computer game-and it will boost your sense of humility. I suggest that officers interested in developing a losing style consider carefully their choice of both opponents and scenarios. No, I do not advocate anything as crass as deliberately playing badly in order to lose: any fool can manage that. The trick is to lose honorably whilst trying your utmost to win.
Accordingly, you should play balanced scenarios against very skillful opponents or wildly unbalanced scenarios against neophytes. While it is not always possible to correctly gauge one's opponent, if at first you unfortunately fail to lose, a rematch will soon set things aright. Personally, I prefer to play an unbalanced scenario against a neophyte, since the rookies haven't yet learned the joys of creative losing and will (all unwitting) cheerfully play the British side in Wellington's Gamble or Defense du Plancenoit, or the French in Grande Bataille de Waterloo, or Great Day for a Battle. The fools ... The French officer who can play a full game of There Is Grouchy, or the Allied officer who plays all xx turns of Hold At All Cost (my Russian friends will forgive me for my ignorance of NiR, but I'm sure they get the general idea), fighting gamely all the way to a glorious defeat, is an officer who has my undying admiration.
If you must win, (and since there is a random factor involved in all of these games, that is a danger for which you should be prepared), try to be a gentleman about it. Praise and polite (not condescending) condolences are recommended. One of my more charming opponents once assured me that Gen. Dornberg and his dragoons (whom he'd surrounded and wiped out) were enjoying a fine claret at French HQ. Monosyllabic or silent replies are only marginally better than gloating or snide remarks. Finally, recommend your losing opponents to their commanders for medals and what not. The praise of an opponent carries a great deal of weight with superior officers. Hopefully, a thoughtful opponent will do the same for you, and you will soon be on your way to a series of glittering defeats, mounting ever-higher casualty figures to climb the ranks.
Brig.-Gen. Sir Christopher Wattie
Royal Horse Guards (Blues)British Army Chief of Staff
The Maligned MP Game and How to Improve the Odds of Completion,
by Gen. Brig. John Mitchell I Corps, AdN
Over the last few weeks I have noticed, on several occasions, the occasional remark disparaging the very entertaining MP game. As someone who loves them, and so far (knocking on wood as I write) have yet to cancel one, I thought I could share some ideas on how to improve your odds of completing one. I have seven of them in progress, some started in december of '98 !
The first and most important aspect is to adjust your expectations. Frustration will quickly set in if you are expecting a file to come your way every day. As an average I get most MP turns once every two weeks or so. Some are better, some worse but that is the average. Have a printed copy of your strategic plan or orders filed by game name so that you have ready reference when your turn does come. You want to make each of those turns count.
Be flexible. As each side contains two or more players several factors can affect game play including vacations, resignations, job or family priorities etc. From the outset request that players on both sides allow for that possibility and allow for either replacements, substitutions or for one of the players to temporarily take on additional duties. In three of my current games, the original participants has changed due to all of the above. But all three are still going with new members.
Don't get too grandiose, a two on two game can work with almost any of the BG game scenarios. And is the easiest to manage. If you want a truly great MP experience then try the three on three with a CiC and two commanders on each side. You want to know how Napoleon or Wellington felt, use the MP Comm rules that have been posted on the NWC site or contact me for a copy. The CiC isn't actually involved in moving, firing, meleeing but issues orders, receives courriers on the situation (views the replay every fourth turn) and sets up meetings with his commanders every so often to review. So really it is a 2 on 2 game. I have several of this type going as well and despite the occasional delay they are a blast. The best part, in my opinion is that first meeting (if you can do this on a chat site or Net Meeting or something similar it is REAL) when the CiC and his Corps commanders discuss the over-all strategic plan. Sparks fly, opinions are given and ignored as the CiC makes the final call.
Don't be a pain, but don't let the game die without a fight either. An occasional reminder sent to the enemy often yields results. Sometimes not even what you expect, when recently I discovered that it was I who had been holding things up in one particular game (Sorry Gil and Rob). Establish a good file transfer process from the outset. The best, in my view, is for team A, that just completed their phase, to send the file to all members of team B. Team B know their own order, so the player who goes first does his turn, while the other player can view the replay while awaiting his turn. When it is the CiC's turn to view a file the players on his own team can send it to him when it is appropriate to do so. It may also be a good idea to send out a "file sent" confirmation, especially in the six man MP game.
If you have a group of players that you regularly play against, that have a good file return history, these are your best choices for opponents. Not one of my MP games resulted from a Tavern challenge. They were arranged through opponents that I already had a history with. In a nutshell ... enjoy the MP game experience !
Gen. Brig. John Mitchell
I Corps, AdN
A VERY NEAR THING (SPW245)
by Major Ruben Lopez, Russian Army
After a series of victories in small battles against the French invaders of Russia, the Tsar sent me on a goodwill mission to visit our allies in the struggle against the Corsican tyrant. I joined Field-Marshal Wellington and his army in the fields of Belgium. Napoleon's army approached and the British Army readied to face him. Field-Marshal Wellington's staff had suffered severe losses due to a defective shipment of gin, so he asked me to command part of his army. I accepted gladly, eager to fight again the French barbarians.
The battle was joined. The scenario was The Main Assault Begins (32 bit (v2.01), Gorsuch's OOB, all optional rules, NWC House Rules with a modification: (1) Skirmishers in clear terrain must always be at a maximum distance of 3 hex. from one unit of its brigade (2) To place themselves in clear terrain adjacent to an enemy non-skirmisher unit, the skirmishers must be adjacent to one unit of its brigade.
I took command of a position in the center of the Allied deployment, between the chateaux of Mt. St. Jean, La Haye Sainte and Papelotte. Our mission was to defend those chateaux and the hill that dominated the center of the front.
I had a motley group of units, of different qualities and strength. Our left flank was adequately guarded with the 1st Hannoverian Br., but the right was weaker, with the 2nd Dutch-Belgian Br. somewhat isolated, and the 4th and 5th Hannoverian Br. (formed of Landwehr) supporting them at a distance. In the center, the weakest link was the 1st Dutch-Belgian Br., while the top of the hill was guarded by our strongest infantry, the 9th British Br. Our artillery was just adequate, but I had under my command some of the finest cavalry: the 1st, 2nd and 4th Br. of the Cavalry Corps, supported by the Dutch-Belgian Cav. Division.
We were faced by the four divisions of the French I Corps, plus a couple of divisions of Cuirassiers, and a very strong battery of artillery, deployed in the center.
The battle started with a heavy bombardment of our center positions, which immediately started causing us losses and disorder. While their artillery weakened our line, the French infantry moved behind their front line, taking covered positions out of our artillery range of fire. As I could not hit them, I ordered our batteries to shoot at their guns, hoping to alleviate the damage they were causing us.
It seemed that the French were to advance on our flanks. Our right flank was well protected, so I reinforced the left. I sent the 4th Hannoverian Br. to support Papelotte, while the 5th and two artillery batteries completed the line between Papelotte and the hill. I also ordered the 1st Brigade of the Dutch-Belgian Cav. Div. to reinforce Vandeleur's Lt. Dragoons in our left. The heavy cavalry brigades and the Nassau Res. Contingent were left behind as a reserve. Our skirmishers formed a line in front of our infantry and artillery, and I ordered the men to withstand the enemy fire and keep the line at all costs.
The French advanced their artillery line, and tried to outflank La Haye Farm with elements of their 4th Div. The 4th Hannoverian Br. stopped them, but in the center our losses mounted and by 1:30 PM most of the 1st Dutch-Belgian Br. had retreated. I had to send there the 2nd KGL Br. to take their place.
The troops' positions. The French pressure Papelotte:
The French started to press Papelotte, while keeping most of their infantry out of our guns' range. Luckily, our counterbattery fire was taking its toll, with 13 guns destroyed so far. But our infantry had already suffered 1.400 losses, and we had not many reserves to help our left flank. As their vanguard units were threatening to circle Papelotte from the right, I ordered the 1st Dutch-Belgian Light Cav. Brigade to drive them away. They charged brilliantly and surrounded and destroyed two Bn. of the 95é Ligne, with the added feat of capturing the Gen. de Division Durrutte. The French circling maneuver had been aborted.
But the able French commander, far from despairing, decided to attack in the center. Their skirmisher line advanced and meléed our line, driving them away. Weakened by the relentless French bombardment, many of our light units routed and run away. Our main line was too worn to stand that fire for long and could not face a massive French assault. So, I ordered the formed units and the artillery to retreat behind the ridge, leaving only a new skirmisher line on the ridge, to delay the French advance. As the situation around La Haye Sainte was calm, I moved most of the cavalry to the center, leaving there only the Heavy and 2nd Light Dutch-Belgian Cav. Br., plus the 1st Hannoverian Br. defending the chateau, and four batteries to reply to French fire. The French had paid dearly for their advance with heavy losses in infantry and artillery.
This didn't stop them, and they kept charging upwards. Some of their units arrived to the ridge of the hill, while others pressed around Papelotte, towards the crossroads. They had to be stopped. The Hannoverian Lw. of the 4th and 5th Br. pushed back the attack around Papelotte. The 7th Dutch Mil. Regt. and the Nassau Regt. recovered the ridge. I was keeping my best infantry, the 2nd KGL Br. and the 9th British Br. as a second line of reserve.
The French kept pushing up the hill. They moved forward some of their batteries, to threaten our counterattacking units. A fierce battle ensued for the possession of the ridge, with continuous attacks and counterattacks á la bayonette. Some of our men lose heart and retreated, but many of the French also dropped arms and run. Losses mounted by both sides. By 3:00 PM, the French had lost 3.825 men, 75 horse and 23 guns, vs. 2650 men, 125 men and 6 guns of ours. The French had a foothold on the ridge, but our line held.
The French push in the center. The fight in the ridge:
The French commander, seeing that they were suffering severe losses and could not achieve their objectives, decided to play his last card. He launched a massive assault in the center, that took most of the ridge, save the objective just behind, and routing the skirmisher line. Moreover, he threw their cavalry to break the stalemate in Papelotte: the French Hussars and Cuirassiers charged and defeated the Hannoverian and Dutch-Belgian defenders in both sides of Papelotte Farm. Most of their companions, seeing that, routed and ran away or took refuge in the chateaux. Our left flank was completely broken and the center was seriously threatened. We needed a counterattack.
Again our infantry pushed back on the ridge and recovered part of it. Again the 1st Dutch-Belgian Cav. Br. charged the enemy; they could not defeat the French Cuirassiers, but they surrounded and stopped them, while the Lt. Dragoons of the 4th Br. prepared to charge. The French pushed in the side of Papelotte, towards the crossroads, but the remaining units of the Hannoverian Lw. formed a thin line of defence, while the Scots Greys advanced to threaten the French infantry with one of their valiant charges. To make things worse, a surprise charge by 500 Cuirassiers destroyed a Bn. of Hannoverian Riflemen on our right flank, very calm until then. But I had prepared for such an eventuality.
At 3:15 PM occurred the decisive moment of the battle. In the left flank, Vandeleur's Lt. Dragoons charged the Cuirassiers surrounded there. In the right flank, the 2nd Ligth and the Heavy Br. of the Dutch-Belgian Cav. Division came from behind the hill, where they had been waiting all the battle, and charged the French Cuirassiers. The success was complete in both flanks. About 1.000 French Cuirassiers were killed or captured, for 50 losses of our horsemen. Generals Milhaud (the commander of the IV Res. Cav. Corps) Watier, and Vial were captured. The French cavalry was decimated and the situation in both flanks was secured.
The Dutch-Belgian Heavy Br. starts their charge against the French Cuirassiers:
But the center still was in much danger. All the might of the French infantry pushed towards the crossroads and up the hill, and our men could barely stand their ground. The French guns kept pounding them from behind the French lines. All our infantry reserves consisted in 1.000 men of the 2nd KGL Br.
Yet another assault gave the French the dominion on all of the front of the ridge. A strong group of about 1.500 men pushed towards their objective. Meanwhile, the remaining French cavalry still tried to push behind Papelotte and La Haye Farm against Vandeleur's men.
Our men proved their worth still one more time. The fresh infantry of the 2nd KGL Bn. and 600 men of the Dutch Militia again meléed the French down from the hill. Their advance force was surrounded and cut from their lines. I also ordered Poisonby's Dragoons to prepare for a charge to recover the ridge if needed. Meanwhile, in our right flank the victorious Dutch-Belgian Cavalry, encouraged by their success, galloped towards the enemy, followed by the rest of the Carabinieri that were in reserve, and defeated the remaining French horsemen on that area. The French position was falling quickly.
One has to pay hommage to the valour of the French soldiers. Still they tried to advance, again they tried to climb that bloody hill and claim it. Again their horsemen engaged ours, in a vain hope to turn the tables. But their attacks failed, and it was the moment to administer the coup de grace. I ordered our Guards of the 1st Cav. Br. to eliminate the unprotected French batteries. I ordered Vandeleur's Lt. Dragoons and the 2nd Dutch-Belgian Lt. Cav. Br. to destroy the French around Papelotte. And I gave order to Poisonby to take their Dragoons and clean the ridge of French infantry.
What a charge! All along the front, the earth trembled under the hooks of our horses. The French stood no chance. The Dutch-Belgian overrun the French skirmishers, killed the remaining French horsemen and destroyed the French batteries placed on the Chaussée de Bruxelles. The Horse Guards overrun and eliminated four batteries that had been killing the men of our front line. Poisonby's Dragoons fell upon the French infantry like the wrath of an irate god and drove them all away of the contested ridge, not to return. And in a final push, Vandeleur's and Ghigny horsemen surrounded and eliminated 700 more French Cuirassiers next to Papelotte Farm. The French were soundly defeated, the day was ours.
The British Cavalry charges forward and sweeps the field:
72 artillery pieces
12 leader casualties:
Gen. Div. Milhaud, commander of the IV Res. Cav. Corps.
Gen. Div. Watier, commander of the 13th Cavalry Div.
Gen. Div. Delort, commander of the 14th Cavalry Div.
Gen. Div. Durrutte, , commander of the 4th Infantry Div.
Gen. Brig. Schmitz, Vial and Farine
Killed and Wounded(5):
Gen. Brig. Pegot, Travers, Bourgeois and 2 Colonels.
11 artillery pieces.
2 leader casualties:
Maj. Gen. Pack, killed, and Col. Best, wounded.
Final result: Allied Major Victory (-1.028 points).
A very near thing, indeed!
The Front Page | Feature Articles | Strategy and Tactics | Dispatches | On the Internet | Letters to the Editor
This is a new section to the NWC Newsletter. We commissioned it in the hopes that members would be encouraged to do some research into their assigned regiments and share their knowledge with the rest of us. Also it helps to advance the club's espirit de corps. Thanks to those members who helped get this off the drawing board with their contributions.
The 2nd Garrison Battalion
By Andy Evans, 2nd Garrison Battalion, British Army
The 2nd Garrison Battalion was originally the 4th, formed in 1806 in Jersey from limited service men drafted from the 2nd Battalions of the 3rd, 5th, 18th, 44th, 56th, 57th and 67th Regiments. With the disbandment of most of the Garrison battalions in 1814, this one was renumbered 2nd. Strength varied from ten to fourteen companies. The battalion served mostly in the Channel Islands. In May 1813 five companies went to Bermuda. On 12 June 1815 nine companies landed at Ostend in Flanders to join Welington's army.
The other five companies joined them in October for the occupation. The battalion moved to Ireland in Jan-Feb. 1816, where Irish natives were discharged at Cork in September. The remainder disbanded at Chelsea in October. The successive colonels were Lt Gen Sir Charles Hastings, 1806; Lt Gen Sir William Houstoun, 1811; Maj Gen Sir Henry Torrens, April 1815.
T.F. Mills email@example.com (Denver, Colorado, USA)
Land Forces of Britain, the Commonwealth and Empire: http://www.regiments.org
THE 12TH CHASSEURS A CHEVAL
By Lt. Thomas Simmons, 12th Chasseurs a Cheval,
The 12th Chasseurs a Cheval had its origins in the Legion Corse, formed after the French conquest of Corsica in 1769. The unit was renamed Legion du Dauphine in 1775, a short-lived connotation which lasted just three months. Reconstituted in 1779 from four squadrons of the old Legion Corse, the formation was designated 6eme Regiment de Chasseurs a Cheval. After its amalgamation with light infantry companies in 1784 the unit was known as the Regiment de Chasseurs des Ardennes (No. 6), but in 1788 the unit was renamed Regiment de Chasseurs de Champagne (No. 12). By decree on 1 January, 1791 the regiment was designated 12eme Regiment de Chasseurs a Cheval, the name it was to carry throughout the Napoleonic Wars.
In 1792-94 the 12th saw action with the Armee du Nord and Armee des Ardennes at Liege, Saint-Trond, Courtrai, Grand-Reng and Fleurus under colonels Menou and d'Urre de Molans. Two future Marshals of the Empire served with the regiment during this period. Joachim Murat, cavalry commander of Napoleon's Grande Armee, enlisted with the 12th in 1787 and left in 1793 as aide-de-camp to d'Urre. Emmanuel Grouchy, scapegoat of the 1815 Waterloo campaign, also served with the 12th in 1791-92 as its lieutenant-colonel. In addition, from 1792-1815 no fewer than eleven future generals saw service with the 12th.
Reassigned to the Armee de Sambre-et-Meuse in 1794, the 636-strong 12th fought at Kreutznach and served at Wurzburg (1796) with Championnet's division when Austria's Archduke Charles defeated Jourdan. From 1798-1801, the 12th served successively with the Armee de Mayence, Armee du Danube and Armee du Rhin, and was engaged at Stockach, Moesskirch and Memmingen under Colonel Francois Offenstein and Chef de Brigade Jean-Marie Defrance. Transferred to Italy in 1800, the 12th served with Digonet at Bellinzona and in Duvigneau's brigade at Spinetta and Marengo.
Returning to France from Italy in late 1800, the 12th became part of the 2eme Armee de Reserve (later Armee des Grisons) and was attached to Laboissiere's cavalry division when Basel was occupied in 1801. The regiment served with Laboissier's cavalry division in the Armee d'Helvetie in Switzerland and at Vesoul during 1801-02, and with Bourcier's light cavalry division at Belfort with the Armee des Cotes de l'Ocean until 1805. For the campaign on the Danube which ended with the capitulation of Ulm, the 12th under Colonel Guyon was attached to the light cavalry brigade of Davout's III Corps d'Armee of the Grande Armee but missed the Battle of Austerlitz.
The 12th Chasseurs a Cheval continued to be brigaded with the 1st and 2nd Chasseurs a Cheval and attached to Davout's army corps during the 1806 campaign in Prussia. Under Vialannes, the light cavalry distinguished itself at Auerstaedt, suffering heavy losses in the brilliant victory over the Prussians. Led by Marulaz onto the snowy field of Eylau (1807), the 12th and 1st Chasseurs a Cheval were at the head of Davout's relief column which decided that sanguinary battle in favor of the French.
Detachments of the 12th were formed into the 2nd Provisional Regiment of Chasseurs a Cheval for service in Spain (1808). Led by Guyon, 500 strong and brigaded under Jacquinot, the 12th was again a part of Davout's III Corps d'Armee in 1809 at Thann and Abensberg and saw action with Lannes' provisional corps at Eckmuehl and Ratisbon. At Wagram, 718 troopers of the 12th served in Pajol's brigade of Montbrun's light cavalry division. Elements of the 12th were also present in Spain in the light cavalry brigade of Wathier and saw action at Fuentes de Onoro in 1811.
For the cataclysmic campaign of 1812 in Russia, two squadrons of the 12th formed a part of the 7th Light Brigade (Saint-Geniez), 2nd Light Cavalry Division (Wathiez), II Reserve Cavalry Corps (Montbrun) and endured the destructive Russian cannonade in front of the Great Redoubt at Borodino. Virtually destroyed along with the bulk of the French mounted arm during the retreat from Russia, the 12th Chasseurs a Cheval were resurrected the following year and saw action at Koennern, Liepzig and Hanau as part of Dommanget's light cavalry brigade, d'Hurbal's division, Sebastiani's 2nd Cavalry Corps. On 1 August, 1813 the 12th, with 439 officers and men under Colonel Ghigny, participated in a brilliant light cavalry charge at the Katzbach which saved Meunier's infantry division from destruction by the Prussians.
The 12th Chasseurs a Cheval were a part of Saint-Germain's cavalry division during the 1814 campaign in France and were engaged at Bar-sur-Aube. In 1815, 375 troopers of the 12th saw action at both Ligny and Waterloo under Colonel de Grouchy as part of 2nd Brigade (Vinot), 3rd Cavalry Division (Domon), III Corps d'Armee (Vandamme) of the Armee du Nord in the regiment's final campaign.
Bukhari, Emir. Napoleon's Line Chasseurs (Osprey Men-at-Arms Series, London, 1977).
Duffy, Christopher. Borodino and the War of 1812 (Seeley, Service & Co., Ltd. London, 1972).
Juhel, Pierre. "Aout 1813-Napoleon face a l'Europe coalisee", Tradition Magazine Vol. 10 (1999)
Kopp, Andreas. www.home.t-online.de/home/a.kopp/ (Waterloo O.B.)
Lo Presti, Francois. "A Brief History of the 12th Chasseurs a Cheval", The Napoleon Series
Petre, F. Loraine. Napoleon's Conquest of Prussia, 1806 (Hippocrene, New York, 1977)
Napoleon's Campaign in Poland, 1806-07 (Hippocrene, New York, 1975)
Napoleon and the Archduke Charles (Hippocrene, New York, 1976)
www.Napoleonicwars.com (Wurzburg data)
A special thanks to Monsiuer Lo Presti, whose research and permission made mine more complete.
Upon appointment as Commandant of the Ecole de Mars, Colonel von Maunsell received a request from the Military Archives Department ( MAD) of the Paris Inspectorate. The request was for a regimental history of the Saxon Liebstandarte (1er) Training Regt. With the aid of Captain O'Shaughnessy, the Colonel amassed the following information, which captures wonderfully the spirit of a normal regiment on active duty in the service of France. Without further delay, I present to you the edited highlights of one of the premier regiments of La Grande Armee.
Regimental History of the
Saxon Liebstandarte (1er) Training Regt.
1700 - 1808
1700 - 1er Training Regiment was founded in Fontainebleau, overlooking the Guards Training Grounds.
1701 - Guards move.
1702 - 2nd platoon created.
1703 - Granted full regimental status due to an administrative error.
1704 - Present at the Battle of Blenheim, holding the centre. Due to unforeseen circumstances, the centre collapses.
1759 - Present on the Plains of Abraham, Quebec, having the honour of guarding the heights above the river, the night before the battle.
1760 - Returned to camp in Europe.
1789 - Chosen to relieve the normal garrison of the Bastille, for one night only. Bastille falls next day.
1793 - Selected as personal bodyguard to King Louis and Queen Marie-Antoinette.
1793 - King and Queen executed.
1794 - Received many casualties in Paris, from a "whiff of grapeshot", due to a map reading error.
1795 - Regiment posted to Italy for R & R.
1796 - War breaks out in Italy.
1796 - Nearly present at victory of Rivoli, troops stood steady at Ravioli, due to an unfortunate map reading error.
1797 - New map reader posted out to regiment, arrived on Rhine front. Redirected to Italy but never arrived.
1798 - Set out for Egypt with new map reader. Landed off west coast of Ireland, almost in time for the victory of Castlebar.
1798 - Repatriated to France, much to the relief of the English.
1798 - Embarked for Egypt.
1799 - Disembarked in Egypt and assisted at the Siege of Acre. Took up positions on 17 May. Extensive earthworks dug. Siege lifted on 20 May.
1800 - Assigned to bodyguard of General Kleber, C-in-C of French forces in Egypt, after departure of Bonaparte. Kleber assassinated by knife-wielding fanatic, on a tour of friendly positions, the next day.
1801- First regiment to be repatriated by the British, after the Battle of Alexandria.
1802- Posted to the West Indies (Fever Islands).
1805- Returned to France from the West Indies, with more men than they arrived with. The only casualty during this tour was the regimental surgeon, who succumbed to a fever.
1805- Arrived in Paris to the news of the victory at Austerlitz.
1806 - Missed the twin battles of Jena-Auerstadt, due to staff work. Marched between both battles, arriving at neither.
1807 - Received new issue of white uniforms.
1807 - Present at Battle of Eylau but not called upon, possibly due to the new white uniforms in a fresh fall of snow. Nobody could find the regiment. Indeed, nobody could find the Eagle after it had been placed down momentarily in order for the Eagle-bearer to put on his mittens.
1807- Received issue of new blue uniforms.
1807 - Posted to Denmark to assist the Danish army with their defence of Copenhagen. In September Copenhagen falls to the British.
1808 - Received a new title from the Emperor at a presentation of new Eagles. The Emperor was thought to have said that the regiment was easily the "most competent he'd ever seen in his life".
1808 - Posted to Spain, to win the hearts and minds of the friendly Spanish population.
1808 - Civil uprising in Spain.
1808 - Renew acquaintance with French Guard in Madrid.
1808 - French Guard leave Spain.
Follow the exciting story as we continue the history of this fine regiment as it chases the British from Spain to the fields of Waterloo in a future issue.
(author unkown -- name lost in computer crash)
The creation of the Cuirassier regiment bearing No 14 is related to the military effort of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw endangered by the Austrian army in 1809. The founder of the regiment, Col. Stanislaw Malachowski became its commander. Due to a rather expensive equipment and armaments, the fate of the regiment was uncertain. Napoleon did not support the formation of the regiment preferring more effective and light uhlans.
Finally, the regiment, 456 officers and men strong and divided into two squadrons, left for the war against Russia on May 12. 1812. The Cuirassiers were armed with 120 centimeters long French swords. Their weight reached 2.5 kilogrammes. The troopers had also two pistols in holsters at the saddle. Their uniforms were described in detail in regulations issued on September 3. 1810. The full dress was composed of a jacket of dark blue cloth with crimson collar and cuffs and buttoned with golden buttons bearing the regimental number. There were also leather, or loth white breeches and boots reaching above knees. There were also white vest, breastplate and a crested helmet adorned with a crimson panache and horsehair plume.
The officers' dress uniform embraced a tailed coat, long, dark-blue trousers, black hat, dark-blue frock coat and a loose cape of white cloth. Trumpeters had white jackets with crimson collars and frontings. The officers' equipment embraced saddle of white leather, two caparisons of crimson and dark-blue cloth, leather holsters and a saddlebag in regimental colors. Troopers had saddles of black leather and dark-blue caparisons and holster covers.
The 14th Cuirassiers were included in the 7th Cavalry Division of the VIth Reserve Cavalry Corps of Gen. Latour-Mabourg during the Russian campaign. In spite of the fact that it was not engaged in the initial hostilities, it suffered badly of the marches across the roadless country without maps and guides. Before it charged at Borodino it dwindled to 365 officers and men. The regiment's charge on batteries of the Russian artillery and redoubts at Borodino on September 7. 1812 meant baptism by fire and a day of glory for the Polish Cuirassiers. Before it came to the famous charge, the soldiers withstood a heavy trial protecting French batteries for several hours under heavy Russian artillery fire. The order to charge was received with a sense of relief. The regiment charged several times with bravado against a great redoubt dominating the battlefield breaking up Russian infantry formed into squares and capturing a cannon and 300 prisoners. After the charge, there were no officers who were not wounded, or at least, whose horse was not wounded. The regiment lost one third of its strength. During the tragic retreat from Moscow, several dozen remaining Cuirassiers protected and saved 24 Polish artillery pieces.
The reorganisation of the army in June, 1813 brought the strength of the regiment to 180 officers and men. Breastplates were discarded and the regiment was attached to the vanguard cavalry brigade together with a new formation - the Cracow Cavalry. On August 17, 1813, the regiment commenced hostilities close to the Czech border participating in skirmishes and battles nearly every day until the debacle at Leipzig. It participated in the great cavalry charge at Wachau. While serving with the Commander in Chief headquarters, the Cuirassiers helplessly watched the death of Prince Józef Poniatowski in the Elster river. Cut off and surrounded, they became prisoners. Some saved themselves swimming the swollen river.
The 14.th Cavalry commenced and terminated the Polish tradition of Cuirassiers.
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To act upon lines far removed from each other, and without communications, is to commit a fault which always gives birth to a second.
Napoleon's Maxim of War XI
Allied Coalition News | British Army | La Grande Army | Prussian Army | Russian Army
Allied Coalition News
This period of activity saw a small increase in our Coalition ranks. The Austrian Army doubled their ranks (see their column) and a new Spanish Corps was started in the British Army by Rodrigo Leon and Juan Pablo da Cruz. We look forward to seeing their 'Legion' grow and hopefully they will gain full army status soon!
A Maneuvers In Progress page has been going to be created. I will be tracking all Allied Maneuvers. I am going to collect all info from officers in the Coalition on Maneuvers that are in progress and get the page up and running by the end of the month. Allied Corps Commanders are urged to contact their officers and have them forward to me all information about Maneuvers that they are in (these MUST be active games).
New Rule - All members are urged to contact their commanders if they use a Yahoo, Hotmail, Excite or any public email account and provide them with a REAL email address. This is REQUIRED by Coalition law! All prospective members must submit this information which is kept private by the commander. It will rid us of folks that want to jokingly or maliciously join the club to give us problems. Pseudonyms are still allowed (the Beloved Frobisher and Charles Barboni come to mind) but a Frobisher style account is limited to the use by Corps commanders and above. Your officers will be contacting you if you are using one of these accounts. Please supply them with an alternate email account (REAL). They will NOT share this information with any other member of the Coalition unless there is a change of command after which they will delete the information from their address books.
Reminder - the Dresden Mess Hall is for the use of all Coalition officers. After we have cleaned house of inactive officers we will be password protecting the discussion board. You still will want to use discretion as to how you conduct yourself on the board. Use the Rhine Discussion Board to make game challenges and general comments.
Historical articles - we are looking for good historical articles to be added to the Allied Library! Please contact Paul Harris for any contributions you wish to make to our beloved Library! Admin points for medals will be awarded based on content and appearance.
FML Bill Peters
The Naval Department welcomes Christopher Elston-Hurdle and Jon Martens to their ranks! Each joined the British Navy.
We added the US Navy to the Navy Department as well. They are headed by Commander Sam Orlando.
We reached our 50th game played between the French and British Navies! The French locked horns with the British over control of the sea lanes and are generally gaining some ground! However, with the addition of the US Navy the French have grown bold and have sallied forth to fight the Brits and seem to be endangering the hold that Britannia has on the oceans!
Thanks to those who are fighting on to promote our Navy! Please sign up and join the fun! Only one Match is necessary per month and they only take about 15-30 mins to play!
Admiral Bill Peters, Secretary of the Navy
British Navy News
The British Navy added in two new recruits this past month! Welcome to Midshipmen Christopher Elston-Hurdle and Jon Martens to the Channel Fleet! MDSHPMN Martens already has won his first action, #024. Arethusa+ vs. Engageante+ against his French foe Mark Adams!
Our Navy had a winning streak of 8 Matches going when Mark Adams ended it with a victory against MDSHPMN Martens! We still have an impressive record of 29-21-1(tie) against the French. Unfortunately French Captain Chris Borzumato is back from shore leave and with Mark Adams on the rise we have our hands full! All Allied members looking to keep the French in port please join us in helping keep these rascals in line!
Lt.Cmnder Bill Peters, Purple Squadron, Channel Fleet
Austrian Army News
The Austrian Army had some modest increase during January. One new officer was added, Unter-Lt. Pete Keller! There are still a few openings in our ranks! In March we will open the gates to any that wish to transfer from the French army. Allied officers are asked to wait until April to transfer.
Our first Major Victory as an Army was won by Unt-Lt. Quigley who bested his opponent, Gerry O'Shaughnessy at Waterloo in "Napoleon's Charge." Congratulations Unt-Lt! The Kaiser is well pleased!
FML Peters, CoA Austrian Army
Officers to participate in the upcoming Allied Maneuvers will be asked to contact their Corps Commanders who will forward a full list of officers to their CoA by January 25th. I will post the list on the Allied Coalition website as soon as I get the full list. Members will be matched against opposing army members as much as is possible! These games are Maneuvers and will be counted for half points.
A short Challenge will be fought by the Austrians and Prussians this month. It will feature a scenario from Waterloo or for those that don't own BGW one from NIR. All interested Prussians and Austrians are asked to contact their Corps Commanders if interested in participating.
The scenarios are new and feature Prussians against French! The NIR scenario will feature Russians against French (French are played by Austrians in both).
FML Bill Peters
Allied Coalition CiC
Ladies and Gentlemen:George, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the British Dominions beyond the seas, King, Defender of the Faith, does hereby order the promotion of the following officers for their continued success against the French and for their diligent discharge of their duties:
Lt. Col. James Alexander to Colonel
Lt. Chris Cook to Captain
Ensign William Hefenr to Lt. in 23rd Light Dragoons, 3rd Light brigade
Major Richard Holland to Lt. Colonel
Lt. Col. Richard Holland to Colonel
Lt. Dan Cotter to Captain
Lt. Chris Cox to Captain
Lt. Greg Hanbach to Captain
Capt. Greg Hanbach to Major
Major Mark Reitz to Lt. Colonel
Ensign Ralph Taylo to Lt. in the 35th Regiment of Foot
Lt. Terry Lubka to Captain
Lt. Ken Jones to Captain to Major
Col. Rodrigo Leon to Brigadier General
Ensign Adrian Clarke to Lt., 2nd Battalion, 95th Rifles
Lt. Sergi Maymi to Captain
Brigadier General Sir Paul Harris to Major General
Ensign Andrew Evans to Lt., 2nd Garrison Battalion
Lt. Sellich Davies to Captain
Major Doug McKenzie to Lt. Colonel
George, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the British Dominions beyond the seas, King, Defender of the Faith, does hereby order the presentation of awards to the following officers for their continued success against the French and for their superior discharge of their duties:
Lt. Col. Colin Gaskill, bar to MGSM
Col. 'Mad' Mick O'Reilly, bar to MGSM
Major John Munro, bar to MGSM
Col. Richard Holland, bar to MGSM
Col. Tony Dobson, Army Gold Medalfor "tireless support of the RMA and construction of the cadet lounge and continued success in battle against the French
Lt. Dan Cotter, bar to MGSM
Lt. Col. Douglas McKenzie, 2nd and 3rd bars to MGSM
Brig. General Rodrigo 'The Lion' Leon, 9th and 10th bars for MGSM
Major Greg Hanbach, MGSM and bar to MGSM
Col. Tony Dobson, 4th bar to MGSM
Major David Frey, Meritorious Service Medal
Col. Andy Smith, Waterloo Medal and bar to MGSM
Congratulations Gentlemen. God Save the King!
Lord Arthur Wellesley
British Army Commander
La Grande Armee
L'Armee du Rhine
News From l'Armee du Rhin
The past months have proved to be very important for the ADR, lots of changes, battles and activity is reported from the front.
Several months ago, I implemented a 6 month plan to alter the way we do business. Primarily this was to create two 'Main' fighting Corps (V Gauche Aile & VIII Droit Aile) from which our main aggression would be thrust at our enemies. To do this, these Corps had to be led by Veteran Officers, which was found in Generals Shively & Adams, it was also decided to alleviate these Corps of all training responsibilities, thus the Ecole du Mars was born.
Through this re-organisation we have seen the ADR go from strength to strength, the Ecole (EDM) is now finely established and boasts 10 training Regiments allowing a Resident Training Officer to Cadet ratio of 1-1, real personal attention!, Each Cadet that now Graduates from the Ecole will be awarded the 'Ordre l' Ecole' for their commitment during training.
Increased ranks have now led us to implement the Armee du Rhin Reserve Cavalry consisting of the II & IV Reserve Cavalry Corps's.
In my personal opinion the ADR has never been in such a stable and strong position, which was reflected in a recent Campaign challenge from the Prussian Army, a general call to arms raised no less than 33 Ready & Able ADR Officers to stop the Prussian onslaught!
This month will see the final touches placed on the ADR, with the inclusion of 'NEW' Headquarters, French Medals, and various other delights my own Chief of Staff Gen de Brigade Frederiksen has been working on.
We are sorry to see the loss of a great Leader and personal friend Gary Shively disappears without trace, and we all pray for his well being.
That left the VIII Corps Commanders post vacant, so Col Steve Goodwin stepped down from his AdC role at the EDM and took up the challenge. I am now delighted to see a new VIII Corps HQ and an outstanding Corps activity ratio.
Next came the change at the Ecole. Instigating Commandant Gen de Brigade Rich Hamilton, had been the person to take the EDM from an idea to reality, his efforts and support from his staff have without doubt gained respect from his piers and cadets alike. It was a sad day when his decision to step down as Commandant was announced. Gen Hamilton now spends his days lazing away in Westphalia with the VIII Corps, under the Command of his old AdC and good friend Col. Goodwin.
Like a true Professional Gen Hamilton would not leave his post until spending several weeks grooming his successor Col Barry 'Von'Maunsell, who in no time had changed the Commandants office around, moved in his inherited Oompah Band to the Ecole Cadets Mess, and hired a new cook 'Egor' to serve up the finest Roast Ram!. I was in need of some training myself, so thought whom better than the Commandant of the Ecole to partake in a small exercise with! 10 turns later my Polish Corps was fleeing for home at the hand of Von Maunsell's rock steady Russians. This gives me great confidence in the Ecoles New Commander.
General de Brigade Trebosc gets back to fighting with the VIII Corps, whilst Colonel Trevalyan gets back in the saddle taking command of the 7th Cuirassier Division IVCC. Both these Experienced Officers leave the Ecole, but are replaced by Lt Col Robert Bruce who joins the ADR from our sister Armee du Nord, and now commands the 9th Regiment d'Enrainment, whilst Capt Gerry O'Shaghnessy and Lt Raymond Burch step up to become the EDM's new ADC's.
Ecole Honour Sabre recipient Capt Dan Pfenning, now takes command of the Reserve Cavalry, and is working to establish both the 2nd & 4th Cavalry Corps both with independent Commanders, this has been aided by the arrival of Veteran Gen de Brig Jeff Bardon who is acting as temporary AdC to the IV Cavalry Corps, before taking over full time command.
Finally I wish to extend my personal thanks to all the Staff of ADR for their Committed and Continues Hard work, The fruits are now very apparent Gentleman. Thank you.
The Prussians Are Coming!!
Urgent Communiqué Commanders l'Armee du Rhin
I have just received word via Gen de Brigade Frederiksen's Intelligence network, that the Prussian Army led by 'Old Blucher' himself has mobilised and heading toward Westphalia, apparently to bring the so called rebel state under Germanic rule. Early reports show that their forward Vanguard has crossed the Elbe and occupied the Fortress town of Magdenburg on the Prussian/Wesphalian border.
Under the terms of our Alliance with Wesphalia, the Emperor has ordered the Confederation of the Rhin to meet the Prussians head on.
As we speak General Brewitt's HQ is packing to leave Paris and will lead the Armee du Rhin himself, he has ordered that you muster your corps to the following FUP's (Forming up Points) and report with active available strength within 5 days.
V Corps General de Division Adams (Gauche Aile)
Your Corps will make all haste to the valuable Westphalian town of Brunswick. Your Light Cavalry Vanguard to secure the town and X Roads at Helmstadt.
VIII Corps Colonel Goodwin (Droit Aile)
Your Corps will make all haste to the rich supply town of Erfurt in Saxony, this will also ensure the co-operation of our Saxon Allies. Your Light Cavalry Vanguard to secure the town and X Roads at Halle.
Reserve Cavalry Captain Pfenning
Your light cavalry Divisions will secure the town and X Roads at Halberstadt. Whilst your Heavy Divisions are to form a central reserve at the Westphalian town Kassel.
General's Brewitt/Frederiksen/Andreasson (Armee Head Quarters)
Field HQ will be formed at Kassel along with the Reserve Cavalry.
Colonel Von Maunsell (Ecole du Mars)
All haste should be made to draft all Graduated possible Officers within the next few days. These along with your own training Regiments are to report to FAHQ.
Gentleman, I need not explain the Importance of your haste, the Glory of France and the Armee of the Rhin is at stake, as well as the safe being of our Germanic Allies.
Gen de Brig Andreasson
ADC to Gen Brewitt
l'Armee du Rhin
L'Armee du Nord
Courier Lost -- Presumed captured by scouts from the 1st Royal Dragoons, British Union Brigade, Cavalry Corps
The Prussian Army had undergone a reorganization since the last newsletter. The new Prussian General Staff is made up of the following (basically every position has a new person):
Generalmajor Michael W. Gjerde, CoA
Generalleutnant Andreas Naujoks, Chief of Staff
Major Robert Hamper, Aide de Camp
Generalmajor Heidar Karlsson, Sr. Staff Officer and Chief of Military Police (he will make sure your papers are in order)
Generlleutnant Stefan Ritter von Reuter, Commander I Korps and the new Koniglig Preussische Kriegs Akadame
Generalmajor Sam Orlando, Commander II Korps and Prussisches Manover Hauptquatier
Generalmajor Naujoks to Generalleutnant
Oberstleutnant Stefan Reuter to Oberst than to Generalmajor then to Generalleutnant!
Unterleutnant Simone Tombesi to Oberleutnant
Oberleutnant Tombesi - Military Merit Medal in silver for his first >victory over the French
Genralmajor Reuter - both the Ritterkreuz (for capturing Napoleon at Waterloo) and the Pour le Merite (aka Blue Max) for 10 victories over the French
Generalleutnant Naujoks - Pour le Merite for his tenth victory over the French
"Fuer Korps und Vaterland"
Kommandeur I Korps
Russian 2nd Army of the West Dispatch
I. ARMY STRUCTURE
The Imperial Russian Army continues to enjoy new recruits and the Army has evolved to meet the new challenges of additional membership. A new Militia Corps has been created to train new recruits. Major Ruben Lopez has taken command of the Russian training effort and promises fewer French victories in the foreseeable future.
Thirteen new recruits joined the Russian Army since November. Of these, the following have completed training and received their command assignments from the Tsar:
1. Major Scott Cameron - 6th Jagers, 12th Division, 7th Corps. (Major Cameron is a French émigré)
2. Praporshik Tracey Vann - Chernigov Dragoons, 4th Division, 4th Cavalry Corps
3. Praporshik John Scarbrough - Smolensk Regiment, 12th Division, 7th Corps
4. Praporshik Daniel Claude - 5th Jager Regiment, 26th Division, 7th Corps
5. Praporshik Stan Kasper - Bug Cossacks, 4th Cavalry Corps
6. Praporshik Chris Suttles - Tarnapol Infantry Regiment, 27th Division, 8th Corps
Significant efforts have been made to add historical realism to the Russian Army and its command structure. A Cossack Brigade has been added to Polpovnik Yrureta's 4th Cavalry Corps and Polpovnik Ocampo has been persuaded to assume command in addition to his honorary duties as 5th (Guards) Corps commander. With Polpovnik Ocampo once again at the head of our Cossacks, all officers, Allied and French, are forewarned that dispatches may no longer arrive with any semblance of regularity.
Polpovnik Ocampo's cossacks helping themselves to some French stores.....
For those of you who have difficulty wrapping your mouths around the new Russian ranks, thank Podporuchick Victor Vityai, Podporuchick Txema Arguello and Major Ruben Lopez. These officers spear-headed our efforts to incorporate a historically accurate Russian rank structure. Please see Podporuchick Vityai's article for an excellent overview of the new ranks.
II. BATTLE HONORS\DECORATIONS
Two new Orders, the Sword of Saint George and Order of Saint Stanilus, have been added to those available to Russian and Allied officers. Descriptions of the new awards and eligibility requirements may be found on the Russian medal page.
The Russian Army logged six major and four minor victories in the last three months.
By far, the most prolific officer during this period was Polpovnik Peter Yrureta, commander of the 4th Cavalry Corps. Polpovnik Yrureta achieved a string of victories with staggering casualties inflicted on the enemy:
1. Major Victory (NIR-KTF)
French losses: Infantry 57,525\Cavalry 26,525\Artillery 499\Leader 189
French losses included 84 colonels, 61 Gen of Brig, 26 Gen of Div, 13 Generalmajors, 1 Generalleutenant, 1 Prince, and 3 Marshals [Marshal Ney(c) , Marshal Murat(w), Marshal Bessiéres(k), Prince Eugéne de Beauharnais (c)]
Russian Losses: Infantry 56,500\Cavalry 16,575\Artillery 122\Leader 74
2. Major Victory (NIR-KTF) - playing the French
French losses: Infantry 42,250\Cavalry 15,125\Artillery 44\ Leader 44
Russian Losses: Infantry 63,000\Cavalry 19,975\Artillery 482\Leader 122
3. Major victory (BGW)
French Objective Points 0
French losses: Infantry 56,375\Cavalry 15,875\Artillery 262\Leader 180
French losses included the Emperor (w), Ney, Kellerman, 32 Gen de Div, 48 Gen de Brigade, 98 Colonels.
Allied Losses: Infantry 50,200\Cavalry 12,350\Artillery 121\Leader 46
4. Minor Victory- Maneuver scenario
For his achievements, Polpovnik Yrureta was promoted to his present rank of Polpovnik and awarded the Order of St. Andrew, Order of St. George, Army Best Shot Medal and Waterloo medal.
Not to be outdone, the following officers also logged victories and\or were awarded decorations:
Major Mark Doggett : Minor victory SPR176
Poruchick Tracey Vann : Major victory SPR256
Major Ruben Lopez : Major victory SPW245. (For an account of the battle, please see Major Lopez' battle report in this newsletter). For his efforts in helping restructure the Army, Major Lopez was also awarded the Order of St. Vladimir.
Major Pascal Hummel : Major victory SPR185 (11\18 turns)
French losses: Infantry 7375\ Cavalry 2800\Artillery 16\Leader 17
Russian Losses: Infantry 1925\Cavalry 2600\Artillery 19\Leader 2
Major Pascal Hummel : Major victory in SPR203
Kapitan Simon Ward : Major victory SPR210 (10\10 turns). For his first victory, Kapitan Ward was awarded the General Sevice Medal.
Poruchick Raymond White : Minor victories in ATR006 (6\6 turns) and 057 (6\6 turns)
Poruchick Victor Vityai : Minor victory in 062 (10\10 turns). For his first victory, Poruchick Vityai was awarded the General Sevice Medal. For his efforts in researching Russian ranks, Poruchick Vityai was also awarded the Order of St. Vladimir.
Poruchick Txema Arguello : For his efforts in researching Russian ranks, Poruchick Arguello was awarded the Order of St. Vladimir.
III. PROMOTIONS\GUARD INDUCTION
The following officers received promotions:
Major Ruben Lopez assumed command of 2nd Grenadier Division, 8th Corps before being promoted to the command of the Russian Militia (training) Corps
Polpovnik Peter Yrureta assumed command of 4th Cavalry Corps
Shtabs-Kapitan Pascal Hummel Promoted to Major
Prouchick Simon Ward to Kapitan
Podpolkovnik Peter Yrureta to Polpovnik
Major Jim Woods assumed command of the 27th Infantry, 8th Corps
The Russian Guard inducted Polpovnik Peter Yrureta and Major Ruben Lopez as its two newest officers. These officers qualified for Guard membership by achieving 10 victory points in addition to contributing to training new recruits and aiding in army matters.
Podpolkovnik Karl Schneider
Chief of Staff
Second Army of the West
The Front Page | Feature Articles | Strategy and Tactics | Regimental Histories | Dispatches | Letters to the Editor
On the Internet
There is a heck of a lot of stuff our there on the web for those interested in Napoleon and the Napoleonic Wars. More than we can possibly put in the newsletter. A few of the more interesting sites that Chris and I have come across are described below. We encourage members to share their favorite sites as well (just drop one of us a line). KJ
Editors Choice: From the Web -- Great Battles
(these links will take you out of the NWC newsletter; click BACK to return here)
The following three pieces are found on a site presently owned by Dominic Goh. When last I visited, the site was going to be moved in the near future to (http://history/napoleonicwars.com). This is an excellent place to spend some time.
The Front Page | Feature Articles | Strategy and Tactics | Regimental Histories | Dispatches | Front and Center
Letters to the Editor
If you have something to contribute or would like comment on any aspect of the newsletter or the NWC, then feel free to write a letter to the editor (firstname.lastname@example.org) However, this newsletter reserves the right to ignore, edit, delete and/or refuse to publish any letter received if it is deemed to be inappropriate or worthless. All letters absolutely must include the name of the author and his/her e-mail address or they will not be posted. KJ
From: Edi Birsan <email@example.com>
Date: Thursday, January 20, 2000 5:47 AM
Subject: Terrrain at Ligny
I was interested in the comments on Ligny terrain (NWC Newsletter - November 1999) and can add the following:
In 1977, 79 and again in 1986 I visited the area to do a personal tour of the battle sites of 1815. I followed parts of the Ligny 'river' and what I was struck with was something that held true for many of the waterways in the area. When you were outside of the towns the rivers were quite easily passable and at one point you could jump across it if you did not want to get wet. However, as the waterway approaches a village or a town, the town folk had built up the river banks to be steep and made the river impassable by wagons and probably horses (though I have no real experience on horses so I can only guess) certainly they would make for obstacles for foot soldiers.
So you have this odd aspect: roads give the best travel, roads lead to towns/villages which grow up by the side of running of water. There the roads lead you to the one point where crossing the water will be the most difficult. I believe a similar experience was reported in the panic at the end of the Battle of Waterloo, where there was this huge traffic jam at Gennappe at the bridges in town when just a little bit out of the town the 'river' was easily fordable.
Legends Play By Mail site:www.mgames.com
The Front Page | Feature Articles | Strategy and Tactics | Dispatches | Regimental Histories | On the Internet
photo by: Jack Sheehand
The Hôtel des Invalides was built in 1670 by Loius XIV for disabled soldiers. Finished by Jules Hardouin-Mansart, the chapel of Saint-Louis houses the tomb of Napoleon I. The Army Museum and the Plans-Reliefs Museum are part of the site.